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In this paper, the authors propose a culture-centred tool called Speculative Ethnography to support the practice of design for the speculative future. Most explorations of tools and techniques of design for the speculative future focus on materialising the speculation. Instead, Speculative Ethnography provides a guideline to help designers define their speculation through the scientific imagination of the plausible future. It ensures the effectiveness of design for the speculative future and supports the interaction of culture and design for the speculative future.
Crowdfunding is the process of taking a project in need of investment and asking a large group of people to supply the investment. It allows organisations to sell their product before production, reducing the risk of new product development. Organisations such as Tesla and General Electric have used crowdfunding successfully but crowdfunding is yet to be explored as part of a formalised product development framework. This paper includes the business case for commercialising new products with crowdfunding and presents crowdfunding as part of a product development and commercialisation framework.
Conceptual design, as an early phase of the design process, is known to have the highest impact on determining the innovation level of design results. Although many tools exist to support designers in conceptual design, additional knowledge, especially knowledge related to emerging technologies, is still often needed. In this paper the authors aim to propose a data-driven creative concept generation and evaluation approach to support designers in incorporating emerging technologies in the new product early development stage. The approach is demonstrated by means of an illustrated example.
Disasters pose a documented risk to mental health, with a range of peri- and post-disaster factors (both pre-existing and disaster-precipitated) linked to adverse outcomes. Among these, increasing empirical attention is being paid to the relation between disasters and violence.
This study examined self-reported experiences of assault or violence victimisation among communities affected by high, medium, and low disaster severity following the 2009 bushfires in Victoria, Australia. The association between violence, mental health outcomes and alcohol misuse was also investigated.
Participants were 1016 adults from high-, medium- and low-affected communities, 3–4 years after an Australian bushfire disaster. Rates of reported violence were compared by areas of bushfire-affectedness. Logistic regression models were applied separately to men and women to assess the experience of violence in predicting general and fire-related post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol misuse.
Reports of experiencing violence were significantly higher among high bushfire-affected compared with low bushfire-affected regions. Analyses indicated the significant relationship between disaster-affectedness and violence was observed for women only, with rates of 1.0, 0 and 7.4% in low, medium and high bushfire-affected areas, respectively. Among women living in high bushfire-affected areas, negative change to income was associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing violence (odds ratio, 4.68). For women, post-disaster violence was associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms.
Women residing within high bushfire-affected communities experienced the highest levels of violence. These post-disaster experiences of violence are associated with post-disaster changes to income and with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms among women. These findings have critical implications for the assessment of, and interventions for, women experiencing or at risk of violence post-disaster.
The steady, axisymmetric flow induced by a point sink (or source) submerged in an inviscid fluid of infinite depth is computed and the resulting deformation of the free surface is obtained. The effect of surface tension on the free surface is determined and is the new component of this work. The maximum Froude numbers at which steady solutions exist are computed. It is found that the determining factor in reaching the critical flow changes as more surface tension is included. If there is zero or a very small amount of surface tension, the limiting factor appears to be the formation of small wavelets on the free surface; but, as the surface tension increases, this is replaced by a tendency for the lowest point on the free surface to descend sharply as the Froude number is increased.
Both maternal obesity and disordered mood have adverse effects on pregnancy outcome. We hypothesized that maternal very severe obesity (SO) is associated with increased anxiety and depression (A&D) symptoms during pregnancy, with adverse effects on gestational weight gain (GWG), postpartum mood and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and explored any mediation by circulating glucocorticoids.
We measured A&D symptoms with validated questionnaires at weeks 17 and 28 of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum in 135 lean [body mass index (BMI) ⩽25 kg/m2] and 222 SO (BMI ⩾40 kg/m2) pregnant women. Fasting serum cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay; GWG and PPWR were recorded.
A&D symptoms were higher in the SO group during pregnancy and postpartum despite adjusting for multiple confounders including previous mental health diagnosis (p < 0.05), and were non-linearly correlated with total GWG (anxiety R2 = 0.06, p = 0.037; depression R2 = 0.09, p = 0.001). In the SO group only, increased maternal anxiety (β = 0.33, p = 0.03) and depression (β = 0.19, p = 0.04) symptoms at week 17 of pregnancy were associated with increased PPWR, independent of total GWG and breastfeeding. Anxiety symptoms at week 28 of pregnancy, but not depression, were non-linearly correlated with serum cortisol level at week 36 of pregnancy (R2 = 0.06, p = 0.02). Cortisol did not mediate the link between A&D symptoms and GWG.
Maternal SO was associated with increased A&D symptoms, and with adverse effects on GWG and PPWR independent of circulating glucocorticoids. Strategies to optimize GWG and postpartum weight management in SO women should include assessment and management of maternal mood in early pregnancy.
Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a focus of attention in 1990/1991 Gulf War veterans, the excess risk of depression has not been clearly identified. We investigated this through a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing depression in Gulf War veterans to depression in a comparison group of non-deployed military personnel.
Multiple electronic databases and grey literature were searched from 1990 to 2012. Studies were assessed for eligibility and risk of bias according to established criteria.
Of 14 098 titles and abstracts assessed, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. Gulf War veterans had over twice the odds of experiencing depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88–2.76] and dysthymia or chronic dysphoria (OR 2.39, 95% CI 2.0–2.86) compared to non-deployed military personnel. This finding was robust in sensitivity analyses, and to differences in overall risk of bias and psychological measures used.
Despite divergent methodologies between studies, depression and dysthymia were twice as common in Gulf War veterans and are important medical conditions for clinicians and policymakers to be aware of in managing Gulf War veterans’ health.
This paper describes an approach to generating reference data sets to evaluate the performance of algorithms used in coordinate metrology for form and geometric tolerance assessment. The approach starts with the reference results, e.g., the solution feature parameter values, and then determines the coordinate data. In this way, the expensive development of reference software is avoided. In this paper we consider the generation of reference data associated with determining the best-fit surface according to the least squares (Gaussian) and Chebyshev criteria.
An experiment was conducted to examine whether weaned piglets would display preference for a food containing a pharmacological level of zinc oxide (ZnO). A total of 60 piglets were weaned at 7.8 kg ± 0.14 (s.e.m.) and 27.8 ± 0.11 days of age into eight mixed sex groups of seven or eight piglets per pen. Groups were balanced for litter origin, weaning weight and sex. Piglet feeding behaviour was constantly recorded by a multi-spaced feeding behaviour recording system (Leeds University Feeding Behaviour System) in each pen. Each pen of pigs was offered ad libitum access to two different foods (16.2 MJ digestible energy, 16 g lysine/kg), which differed only in the level of ZnO supplementation: unsupplemented (U) or supplemented (Z; ZnO 3100 mg/kg). Both foods contained a basal level of zinc (100 mg/kg). Feeding time was recorded for each individual at each trough. Piglets were weighed at weaning and at 7 and 13 days thereafter. The experiment ran for 13 days. Any piglet observed with post-weaning scour (Y) was recorded and treated appropriately whereas healthy piglets were categorised as N (no scour). Preference for a food was defined as being significantly different from 50% of total feed intake or time spent feeding. There was no difference between piglet numbers selecting each food as their first meal. However, within the first 24 h, piglets preferred (P < 0.001) food U, spending only 36.3% (32.2 to 40.5; 95% confidence interval) of feeding time at food Z. Throughout the experiment, piglets showed aversion (P < 0.001) to food Z, consumption being 8.9% (5.1 to 13.6) and 15.7% (8.9 to 23.9) of total intake in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Individual piglets showed their preference for food U with only 16.6% (14.6 to 18.5) and 21.8% (19.6 to 24.0) of feeding time spent on food Z in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Scouring piglets did not show any difference in feeding behaviour from healthy piglets in either week. Average piglet gain (of all piglets) was low, at 0.039 ± 0.03 and 0.272 ± 0.04 kg/day in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Given a choice, weaned piglets showed a clear preference for the food U even when exhibiting post-weaning scour. It can be concluded that the newly weaned, naïve, piglet is not able to recognise a food with clear health and performance benefits but selected the food U due to the reduced palatability of the food Z.
The results of typing of 121 strains in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by PFGE are presented. Every isolate from patients in Scotland over a 3-month period for M. tuberculosis and for 1 year for M. bovis were included along with several laboratory strains including those of BCG. The PFGE results suggest that the population structure of all the strains in this complex is distinctly simple with limited genetic diversity and also suggest that M. bovis is not a distinct species.
A method for typing Haemophilus species is described, based on the analysis of genomic DNA from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The DNA was extracted by a rapid method and digested with the restriction enzyme BamHI to provide a characteristic ‘fingerprint’. The pattern of fragments in the ranges 1–1·6 kb, 1·6–2 kb and 2–3 kb were used to produce a numerical profile of each isolate. In total 97 isolates were examined; 88 from throat swab material isolated from the 15 members of a British Antarctic Survey base and 9 type strains. Seventy-two of the 88 antarctic isolates were H. parainfluenzae and were found to be very diverse, comprising 41 identifiable strains with up to 5 strains being isolated from a single throat swab sample. There was evidence for both carriage and transmission within the isolated community. The technique provided a highly discriminatory method for characterizing Haemophilus strains which is suitable for epidemiological studies.
A PCR-based method of detecting Haemophilus influenzae in cultures inoculated from throat swabs was evaluated using samples from groups of laboratory staff and medical students and then applied to samples originating from the closed human community of an Antarctic research station. Suitable PCR primers to an H. influenzae gene (ompP2) were used to amplify the gene from DNA preparations made from mixed growth on chocolate agar with added vancomycin. PCR product was reamplified and subjected to restriction endonuclease digestion to allow temporal and spatial mapping of strains over an 8-month period. Eleven different strains of H. influenzae were detected. One particular strain was detected in a third of the base members.
An outbreak of waterborne cryptosporidiosis affecting 27 persons, diagnosed stool positive, occurred in Ayrshire in April 1988. Twenty-one of the 27 confirmed cases required some form of fluid replacement therapy. Local general practitioners indicated a two- to fivefold increase in diarrhoeal disease during the outbreak, and following enquiries made by Environmental Health Officers it became apparent that many hundreds of people had suffered a diarrhoeal illness at that time. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in the treated chlorinated water supply system, in the absence of faecal bacterial indicators. Oocyst contamination of a break-pressure tank containing final water for distribution was the cause of this waterborne outbreak. An irregular seepage of oocyst-containing water, which increased during heavy rains, was the cause of the break-pressure tank contamination, rather than a failure of the water-treatment processes. The waterborne route should be considered when clusters of cryptosporidiosis associated with potable water occur. Waterborne cryptosporidiosis can occur in the absence of other faecal indicators of contamination.
Extensive DNA sequence diversity was noted in Helicobacter pylori flagellin genes flaA and flaB. PCR amplified sequences from 49 isolates were digested with AluI. HindIII. MboI or MspI, the resultant patterns were compared between the different isolates and these used to differentiate the isolates from each other. Evidence that the extensive diversity that was found in these genes is the result of reassortment of sequences between strains in the bacterial population is presented, such that a comparatively small number of individual sequence mutations can recombine together in random combinations to form a greater number of distinct alleles. Geographical differences in the predominant patterns in the flaA alleles were also observed and could reflect regional differences either in the human host population or in the bacterial population. In view of the genetic complexity of this species, molecular typing schemes designed to identify related strains may falsely associate strains if the methods do not characterize sufficient genetic sites to exclude chance associations of genetic markers in strains which are actually not closely related to each other.
Weaning is a stressful period for the piglet, invariably typified by low voluntary feed intake and reduced performance. Moreover, if siblings are separated and mixed with other litters, stress increases and the learned stimulus of the group to feed is disturbed (Brooks et al., 2003). This experiment was part of a larger investigation into the voluntary feed intake of the piglet in the immediate post weaning period. We investigated the difference between mixed litter origin or sibling groups on latency to initiate feeding and performance to day six post weaning. We hypothesised that mixing litters would increase latency to first feeding and reduce growth rate in the first few days after weaning.