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Manuscripts pertaining to paediatric cardiology and CHD have been published in a variety of different journals. Some of these journals are journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology, while others are focused on adult cardiology. Historically, it has been considered that manuscripts published in journals devoted to adult cardiology have greater citation potential. Our objective was to compare citation performance between manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and CHD published in paediatric as opposed to adult cardiology journals.
We identified manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and CHD published in five journals of interest during 2014. Of these journals, two were primarily concerned with adult cardiology, while the other three focused on paediatric cardiology. The number of citations for these identified manuscripts was gathered from Google Scholar. We compared the number of citations (median, mean, and 25th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles), the potential for citation, and the h-index for the identified manuscripts.
We identified a total of 828 manuscripts related to paediatric cardiology and congenital heart as published in the 5 journals during 2014. Of these, 783 (95%) were published in journals focused on paediatric cardiology, and the remaining 45 (5%) were published in journals focused on adult cardiology. The median number of citations was 41 in the manuscripts published in the journals focused on adult cardiology, as opposed to 7 in journals focused on paediatric cardiology (p < 0.001). The h-index, however, was greater for the journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology (36 versus 27).
Approximately one-twentieth of the work relating to paediatric cardiology and CHD is published in journals that focus predominantly on adult cardiology. The median number of citations is greater when manuscripts concerning paediatric cardiology and CHD are published in these journals focused on adult cardiology. The h-index, however, is higher when the manuscripts are published in journals dedicated to paediatric cardiology. While such publications in journals that focus on adult cardiology tend to generate a greater number of citations than those achieved for works published in specialised paediatric cardiology journals, the potential for citation is no different between the journals. Due to the drastically lower number of manuscripts published in journals dedicated to adult cardiology, however, median performance is different.
Background: Automated testing instruments (ATIs) are commonly used by clinical microbiology laboratories to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), whereas public health laboratories may use established reference methods such as broth microdilution (BMD). We investigated discrepancies in carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) among Enterobacteriaceae tested by clinical laboratory ATIs and by reference BMD at the CDC. Methods: During 2016–2018, we conducted laboratory- and population-based surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) through the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites (10 sites by 2018). We defined an incident case as the first isolation of Enterobacter spp (E. cloacae complex or E. aerogenes), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, or K. variicola resistant to doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, or meropenem from normally sterile sites or urine identified from a resident of the EIP catchment area in a 30-day period. Cases had isolates that were determined to be carbapenem-resistant by clinical laboratory ATI MICs (MicroScan, BD Phoenix, or VITEK 2) or by other methods, using current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. A convenience sample of these isolates was tested by reference BMD at the CDC according to CLSI guidelines. Results: Overall, 1,787 isolates from 112 clinical laboratories were tested by BMD at the CDC. Of these, clinical laboratory ATI MIC results were available for 1,638 (91.7%); 855 (52.2%) from 71 clinical laboratories did not confirm as CRE at the CDC. Nonconfirming isolates were tested on either a MicroScan (235 of 462; 50.9%), BD Phoenix (249 of 411; 60.6%), or VITEK 2 (371 of 765; 48.5%). Lack of confirmation was most common among E. coli (62.2% of E. coli isolates tested) and Enterobacter spp (61.4% of Enterobacter isolates tested) (Fig. 1A), and among isolates testing resistant to ertapenem by the clinical laboratory ATI (52.1%, Fig. 1B). Of the 1,388 isolates resistant to ertapenem in the clinical laboratory, 1,006 (72.5%) were resistant only to ertapenem. Of the 855 nonconfirming isolates, 638 (74.6%) were resistant only to ertapenem based on clinical laboratory ATI MICs. Conclusions: Nonconfirming isolates were widespread across laboratories and ATIs. Lack of confirmation was most common among E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Among nonconfirming isolates, most were resistant only to ertapenem. These findings may suggest that ATIs overcall resistance to ertapenem or that isolate transport and storage conditions affect ertapenem resistance. Further investigation into this lack of confirmation is needed, and CRE case identification in public health surveillance may need to account for this phenomenon.
In semiarid conditions, feed is often scarce and variable with underfeeding being common; these factors can potentially induce fertility reductions in both sexes. Sexually active bucks are able to very efficiently fertilize out-of-season goats, but we do not know whether underfeeding would reduce the ability of bucks to fertilize goats during these periods. Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) testicular size and change of odor intensity of undernourished bucks exposed to long days and (ii) the ability of these bucks to stimulate reproductive activity in seasonally anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks (n = 7) were fed 1.5 times the normal maintenance requirements from September to May and formed the well-fed group. Another group of bucks (n = 7) were fed 0.5 times the maintenance requirements and formed the undernourished group. All bucks were subjected to artificially long days from 1 November to 15 January; this period was followed by a natural photoperiod until 30 May. Body weight, scrotal circumference and male odor intensity changes were determined every 2 weeks. In experiment 2, two groups of female goats (n = 26 each) were exposed to well-fed (n = 2) or undernourished bucks (n = 2) on 31 March. Ovulations and pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 1, a treatment by time interaction was detected for BW, scrotal circumference and odor intensity changes (P < 0.001). The BWs of well-fed bucks were greater than those of the undernourished bucks from October to May (P < 0.01), as were the scrotal circumferences from December to March (P < 0.05) and odor intensities from February to May (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, the proportions of females that ovulated at least once (100% v. 96%) or those that were diagnosed as pregnant (85% v. 77%; P > 0.05) did not differ significantly between the goats exposed to well-fed or undernourished bucks. The interval between the introduction of bucks and the onset of estrous behavior was shorter in goats exposed to well-fed bucks compared to the interval for those goats exposed to undernourished bucks (2.5 ± 0.2 v. 9.5 ± 0.6 days; P < 0.05). We conclude that undernourishment reduces the testicular size and odor intensity responses in bucks exposed to long days, but that undernourished bucks are still able to stimulate reproductive activity in seasonally anestrous goats, as is also the case for well-fed bucks.
The environmental problems caused by the persistence and improper disposal of single use plastics, have led the worldwide authorities to migrate into a sustainable production of bio-based materials, whose components need to be studied for proving their nature and to confirm their degradability. For this reason, the identification and monitoring degradation of five single use straws were assessed through FT-IR, TGA/DTA and SEM techniques which demonstrate that the straws tagged as biodegradable contain polymers of fossil origin in their formulation. Degradation of them was found to be influenced by polar groups, such as ester and glycosidic bonds of the biodegradable phase. The thermal stability decreased and the morphological characteristics as cracks and holes were detected after biodegradation.
The hosts of long Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are places of intense star-formation, which, at low redshift, are primarily low-mass dwarf starburst galaxies. Spatially resolved studies of these galaxies are still sparse, even more so at high spectral resolution where we can probe gas kinematics, in- and outflows and differences in abundance between different components. Here we present the first high resolution IFU sample of six low redshift GRB hosts, all dwarf starbursts. All galaxies in our sample show evidence for excess emission or broad emission components, with velocities of 100-200 km s−1. For GRB 030329, outflowing gas had also been observed in absorption in spectra of the GRB afterglow. The high velocity emission is usually blue shifted, connected to the brightest star-forming regions and more metal rich than the narrow component associated with the emission of the general host ISM. This gives strong indications that the excess emission/broad component is indeed associated to a starburst wind as observed in many field star-burst galaxies and a sign for the intense ongoing star-formation in those galaxies.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus linked to mucosal and cutaneous carcinogenesis. More than 200 different HPV types exist. We carried out a transversal study to investigate the prevalence of HPV types in two regions of Mexico. A total of 724 genital and non-genital samples from women (F) and men (M) were studied; 241 (33%) from North-Eastern (NE) and 483 (66%) from South-Central (SC) Mexico. The overall prevalence was 87%. In genital lesions from females, the NE group showed a prevalence of HPV types 16 (37%), 6 (13%), 59 (6%), 11, 18 and 66 (5.4% each); and the SC group showed types 6 (17%), 16 (15%), 11 (14.5%), 18 (12%) and 53 (6%). In the genital lesions from males, NE group showed types 16 (38%), 6 (21%), 11 (13%) and 59 plus 31 (7.5%) and the SC group showed types 6 (25%), 11 (22%), 18 (17%) and 16 (11.5%). When the two regions were compared, a higher prevalence of low-risk HPV 6 and 11 was found in the SC region and of high-risk HPV 59, 31 and 66 (the latter can also be present in benign lesions) in the NE region. Our findings complement efforts to understand HPV demographics as a prerequisite to guide and assess the impact of preventive interventions.
Phosphatase activity of Leishmania spp. has been shown to deregulate the signalling pathways of the host cell. We here show that Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and amastigotes secrete proteins with phosphatase activity to the culture medium, which was higher in the Promastigote Secretion Medium (PSM) as compared with the Amastigote Secretion Medium (ASM) and was not due to cell lysis, since parasite viability was not affected by the secretion process. The biochemical characterization showed that the phosphatase activity present in PSM was higher in dephosphorylating the peptide END (pY) INASL as compared with the peptide RRA (pT)VA. In contrast, the phosphatase activity in ASM showed little dephosphorylating capacity for both peptides. Inhibition assays demonstrated that the phosphatase activity of both PSM and ASM was sensible only to protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitors. An antibody against a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) of Leishmania major cross-reacted with a 44·9 kDa molecule in different cellular fractions of L. mexicana promastigotes and amastigotes, however, in PSM and ASM, the antibody recognized a protein about 70 kDa. By electron microscopy, the PP2C was localized in the flagellar pocket of amastigotes. PSM and ASM induced the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1β, IL-12p70 and IL-10 in human macrophages.
The objective of the current study was to determine whether exposure to an artificial long-day photoperiod increases milk production in subtropical goats maintained under extensive grazing conditions, with or without the presence of a nutritional supplement. Forty-four lactating goats were exposed to a natural photoperiod (11 h light) with nutritional supplementation (NDS; natural day supplemented group; n=11) or without nutritional supplementation (NDN; natural day non-supplemented group; n=11) or to an artificial long-day photoperiod (16 h light) with nutritional supplementation (LDS; long-day supplemented group; n=11) or without nutritional supplementation (LDN; long-day non-supplemented group; n=11). Daily nutritional supplementation consisted of a mixture of 300 g rolled maize and 200 g soya bean per animal. During the suckling phase, milk yield was assessed at 10 and 20 days lactation and thereafter every 10 days up to 110 days lactation from day 40 of lactation. Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) concentration was determined at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 days of lactation. Mean milk yield was greater in goats from the LDN group than the NDN group. The difference in mean milk yield was greater when goats received a nutritional supplement. With nutritional supplementation, the plasma IGF-I concentrations were greater in goats exposed to long days than in those maintained under natural photoperiod. However, IGF-I concentrations were lower with long days when goats were not supplemented. In conclusion, exposure to an artificial long-day photoperiod increases milk yield in subtropical lactating goats maintained under extensive grazing conditions, and this increased milk production is more pronounced with a nutritional supplement. Furthermore, depending on nutritional status, exposure to artificial long days increases plasma IGF-I concentration in lactating goats.
Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = −0.191 mm per 1 μg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = −0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = −0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = −0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract.
Several European countries have timely all-cause mortality monitoring. However, small changes in mortality may not give rise to signals at the national level. Pooling data across countries may overcome this, particularly if changes in mortality occur simultaneously. Additionally, pooling may increase the power of monitoring populations with small numbers of expected deaths, e.g. younger age groups or fertile women. Finally, pooled analyses may reveal patterns of diseases across Europe. We describe a pooled analysis of all-cause mortality across 16 European countries. Two approaches were explored. In the ‘summarized’ approach, data across countries were summarized and analysed as one overall country. In the ‘stratified’ approach, heterogeneities between countries were taken into account. Pooling using the ‘stratified’ approach was the most appropriate as it reflects variations in mortality. Excess mortality was observed in all winter seasons albeit slightly higher in 2008/09 than 2009/10 and 2010/11. In the 2008/09 season, excess mortality was mainly in elderly adults. In 2009/10, when pandemic influenza A(H1N1) dominated, excess mortality was mainly in children. The 2010/11 season reflected a similar pattern, although increased mortality in children came later. These patterns were less clear in analyses based on data from individual countries. We have demonstrated that with stratified pooling we can combine local mortality monitoring systems and enhance monitoring of mortality across Europe.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the CSN1S1 locus polymorphism on 305-d records of milk, fat, protein, lactose and total solids yields, fat, protein, lactose and total solids contents in Mexican dairy goats. A total of 514 lactation records belonging to Alpine (n=60), Saanen (n=105) and Toggenburg (n=74) goats, born from 2003 to 2006 in three herds were used. Discrimination between alleles E, F, N, A* (CSN1S1 A, G, H, I, O1 and O2) and B* (CSN1S1 B1, B2, B3, B4, C and L) were made by amplification of fragments of the gene CSN1S1 and digestion with the restriction endonuclease XmnI. In order to estimate additive and dominance effects, data sets including (1) all genotypes, and (2) only homozygote genotypes, were analysed using linear mixed models. The allele A*, had significant additive effects for protein content (0·21±0·07%; P=0·002) and total solids content (0·66±0·23%; P=0·005) when compared with allele F. An unfavourable additive effect of allele A* on milk yield was found in the Alpine breed (−81·4±40·2; P=0·046) when compared with allele F. Favourable dominance effects were found for some genotypes (P<0·05) for milk yield (A*N and B*N), fat yield (A*N and B*E), protein yield (A*N and B*E), lactose yield (A*N) and total solids yield (A*N). Also, unfavourable dominance effects were found (P<0·05) for protein content (A*B* and A*N) and total solids content (A*B*, A*N, and A*F). Allele A* was the only one with a positive effect for protein content. Significant allele-year interaction effects were also observed. The presence of significant dominance effects, estimated between specific pairs of alleles, challenged the purely additive nature of the genetic effect at the CSN1S1 locus. Implications from use of CSN1S1 effects in goat breeding programmes are presented.
This article provides foundations to Polanyi's famed argument that monopoly power in the global capital market served as an instrument of peace during the Pax Britannica (1815–1914). Our perspective is novel—we focus on the role of intermediaries and certification. We show that when information and enforcement are imperfect, there is scope for the endogenous emergence of “prestigious” intermediaries who enjoy a monopoly position and as a result, control government actions. They can implement conditional lending: they subject the distribution of credit to the adoption of peaceful policies. Prestigious intermediaries act that way because of their concern with maintaining an unblemished track record when wars increased risks of default. Our analysis, which brings together insights from different disciplines, provides a significant extension to, and departure from, recent research on how countries accumulate reputational capital.
Thermotropic polymers are thermally treated in air at temperatures Ta, where ΔT =Ta- Ts→n=40°C, and Ts→n is the solid-to-nematic transition. Samples are extruded thin films of a series of thermotropic random copolyesters termed B-N, COTBP and RD1000. The thermal treatment produces a second endotherm without changing Ts→n for B-N and RD1000. However, for COTBP Ts→n is significantly increased. Regardless of the complex thermal behavior exhibited by the thermotropes, the thermal treatment produces a significant increase in Young's modulus, more than 30% for B-N and over 100% for COTBP. The increase in mechanical modulus is correlated with a thermally-induced fiber-like morphology.
This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy to control GIN compared with no intervention.