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Interaction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulses of high intensity with gases results in the creation of non-thermalized plasmas. Energies of the driving photons and photoelectrons are sufficient for creation of excited states, followed by emission of the EUV photons. In most cases, decay times of these states are short comparing to the driving EUV pulse. It means that just after stopping of the driving pulse, the EUV emission corresponding to the excited states should also stop. From our earlier measurements in the optical range, however, it can be concluded that lifetimes of such plasmas exceed a time duration of the driving pulse even two orders of magnitude. Hence, it can be expected that the time duration of the EUV emission can be also significantly longer than the irradiation time. In this work, EUV-induced, low-temperature helium (He), krypton, and xenon plasmas were investigated. EUV emission from these plasmas was studied, using a specially prepared detection system, allowing for time-resolved measurements, in selected spectral ranges. The detection system was based on a paraboloidal collector and a semiconductor photodiode, sensitive for the EUV photons. For spectral selection, the corresponding filters or multilayer mirrors were employed. In most cases, the time duration of the EUV emission was significantly longer than the driving EUV pulse. In case of He plasmas, the emission corresponding to excited atoms was detected even hundreds of nanoseconds after the irradiation. It was also shown that the corresponding time profiles depended on densities of gases to be ionized.
Irradiation of gases with intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) can result in the formation of low-temperature plasmas. During the time of irradiation, various non-thermal processes driven by the EUV photons and photoelectrons take place, leading to the creation of excited states of atoms and ions. Fast relaxation of these states should result in EUV emission within a time comparable to the driving EUV pulse. On the other hand, from our earlier works, a time duration of the emission in an optical range is over an order of magnitude longer. It can be thus expected that the time of EUV emission can be also relatively long. In this work, time-resolved measurements of the EUV emission from low-temperature plasmas induced in He, Ne, and Ar gases were performed. Due to a low intensity of the emitted radiation, a specially prepared detection system, based on an EUV collector and an EUV sensitive photodiode, was employed. In all cases, a time duration of the EUV emission was much longer compared with the driving EUV pulse. Time profiles of the corresponding signals were specific for particular gases. In case of He and Ne plasmas, these time profiles varied with initial densities of gases to be ionized. The corresponding dependence was especially visible in case of plasmas induced in helium. In case of Ar plasmas, such dependence was not revealed.
In this work, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission, from EUV induced, low-temperature microplasmas, were investigated. To perform temporal measurements of the EUV pulses of low intensity, in a medium vacuum, under the pressure of the order of 0.1–0.01 mbar a special detection system was prepared. The system was based on an EUV collector and a semiconductor detector, sensitive for the EUV photons. The collector consisted of two identical grazing incidence, paraboloidal mirrors, and allowed to focus a part of the radiation emitted from the microplasma onto the detector surface. An absorption filter, mounted between the collector and the detector, allowed for selection of an interesting wavelength range. Plasmas were created by irradiation of small portions of gases, injected into the vacuum chamber, using a laser produced plasma EUV source. Three gases were used for the EUV induced plasma formation: neon, krypton, and xenon. Low-temperature plasmas, created in these gases, contained multiply charged ions, emitting radiation in similar wavelength ranges. Two detectors, AXUV20HS1 and AXUVHS5, were used for the measurements. It was shown that differences between the corresponding signal profiles, obtained using both detectors, were not very significant. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the duration of the EUV emission from plasmas, created in different gases, were comparable with the duration of the driving EUV pulse. The longest EUV emission was observed for Kr plasmas, approximately 1.5 times the full width half maximum of the driving EUV pulse.
In this work, a comparative study of low-temperature plasmas, induced in a gaseous nitrogen by photoionization of the gas using two different irradiation systems, was performed. Both systems were based on laser-produced Xe plasmas, emitting intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation pulses in a wide wavelength range. The essential difference between the systems concerned formation of the EUV beam. The first one utilized a dedicated ellipsoidal mirror for collecting and focusing of the EUV radiation. This way a high radiation fluence could be obtained for ionization of the N2 gas injected into the vacuum chamber. The second system did not contain any EUV collector. In this case, the nitrogen to be ionized was injected into the vicinity of the Xe plasma. In both cases, energies of emitted photons were sufficient for dissociative ionization, ionization of atoms or even ions. The resulting photoelectrons had also sufficiently high energy for further ionizations or excitations. Low-temperature plasmas, created this way, were investigated by spectral measurements in the EUV, ultraviolet (UV) and visible (VIS) spectral ranges. Time-resolved UV/VIS spectra, corresponding to single-charged ions, molecules, and molecular ions, were recorded. Numerical simulations of the molecular spectra were performed allowing one to estimate vibrational and rotational temperatures of plasmas created using both irradiation systems.
In this paper, we present the application of partially spatially coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from xenon plasma from a laser-plasma source, based on a double stream gas puff target, in coherent imaging. The radiation at the wavelength of 13.5 ± 0.5 nm was employed to record Gabor-type holograms. An iterative algorithm, based on a phase retrieval technique, was developed and used to remove the twin image from the reconstructed EUV image of test objects. Using partially coherent radiation from a compact, laser-plasma source based on a double stream gas puff target, which is intrinsically incoherent, a Gabor EUV holography was successfully demonstrated.
In this work, a laser-produced plasma source was used to create xenon (Xe) photoionized plasmas. An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation beam was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. Energies of photons exceeding 100 eV allowed for inner-shell ionization of Xe atoms. Creation of N-shell vacancies resulted in N-shell fluorescence and was followed by multiple ionization. Time-integrated EUV spectra, corresponding to excited states in Xe II–V ions, were recorded. Several emission lines detected in the 39–65 nm wavelength range were not reported earlier. They were not identified due to lack of a corresponding information in published databases. Except spectral measurements in the EUV range, time resolved ultraviolet and visible spectra, originating from Xe II and III ions, were recorded. For spectral lines, corresponding to radiative transitions in Xe II ions, electron temperature was calculated based on a Boltzmann plot method. Based on this method the temperature was measured for different time delays according to the driving EUV pulses.
The results of formation of elongated krypton/helium plasma channels are presented. Two laser pulses were used: one to produce plasma channels and the second one for conversion to soft X rays. The soft X-ray radiation was in turn used for backlighting the channels and their visualization. The study of their formation and uniformity was performed using a combination of soft X-ray shadowgraphy and pinhole camera imaging. The plasma channels, with various lengths and various densities, were visualized and the results of their characterization are presented. Using moderate laser pulse energy quite uniform channels, up to 9 mm in length, were demonstrated.
In this work, two laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources – extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and a LPP soft X-ray (SXR) source were used to create Ne photoionized plasmas. A radiation beam was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. EUV radiation spanned a wide spectral range with pronounced maximum centered at λ≈11 nm, while in case of the SXR source spectral maximum was at λ≈1.4 nm. Emission spectra of photoionized plasmas created this way were measured in a wide spectral range λ = 10–100 nm. The dominating spectral lines originated from singly charged ions (Ne II) and neutral atoms (Ne I). For the highest radiation fluence, spectral lines originating from Ne III and even Ne IV species were detected. Differences between the experimental spectra, obtained for all irradiation conditions, were analyzed. They were attributed either to different fluence or spectral distribution of driving photons.
Characterization measurements and modes of operation of a novel, dual-gas multi-jet target, developed for experiments on high-order harmonic generation, are presented. The target has been formed by pulsed injection of argon through a nozzle in a form of linearly oriented small orifices. The argon jets were separated with the helium jets formed by injection of helium through alternate orifices in the nozzle. The targets have been characterized by extreme ultraviolet backlighting at 13.5 nm wavelength. Density profiles for this type of targets have been obtained, to our knowledge, for the first time.
In this work, a laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source and a free electron laser were used to create Ne photo-ionized plasmas. In both cases, a radiation beam was focused onto a gas stream injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Extreme ultraviolet radiation from the plasma spanned a wide spectral range with pronounced maximum centered at λ = 11 ± 1 nm while the free electron laser pulses were emitted at a wavelength of 32 nm. The power density of the focused plasma radiation was approximately 2 × 107 W/cm2 and was seven orders of magnitude lower compared with the focused free electron laser beam. Radiation fluences in both experimental conditions were comparable. Despite quite different spectral characteristics and extremely different power densities, emission spectra of both photo-ionized plasmas consist of the same spectral lines within a wavelength range of 20 to 50 nm, however, with different relative intensities of the corresponding lines. The dominating spectral lines originated from singly charged ions (Ne II); however, Ne III lines were also detected. Additionally, computer simulations of the emission spectra, obtained for photo-ionized plasmas, driven by the plasma extreme ultraviolet source, were performed. The corresponding measured and calculated spectra are presented. An electron temperature and ionic composition were estimated. Differences between the experimental spectra, obtained for both irradiation conditions, were analyzed. The differences were attributed mainly to different energies of driving photons.
Much remains unknown about the phenomenology of bipolar I disorder.
To determine the type of bipolar I mood episodes that occur over time, and their relative frequency.
A total of 219 individuals with Research Diagnostic Criteria bipolar I disorder were prospectively followed for up to 25 years (median 20 years). Psychopathology was assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation.
Overall, 1208 mood episodes were prospectively observed. The episodes were empirically classified as follows: major depression, 30.9% (n = 373); minor depression, 13.0% (n = 157); mania, 20.4% (n = 246); hypomania, 10.4% (n = 126); cycling, 17.3% (n = 210); cycling plus mixed state, 7.8% (n = 94); and mixed, 0.2% (n = 2).
Cycling episodes constituted 25% of all episodes. Work groups revising ICD–10 and DSM–IV should add a category for bipolar I cycling episode.
Suicide is a leading cause of death and has been strongly associated with affective disorders. The influence of affective disorder polarity on subsequent suicide attempts or completions and any differential effect of suicide risk factors by polarity were assessed in a prospective cohort.
Participants with major affective disorders in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Depression Study (CDS) were followed prospectively for up to 25 years. A total of 909 participants meeting prospective diagnostic criteria for major depressive and bipolar disorders were followed through 4204 mood cycles. Suicidal behavior was defined as suicide attempts or completions. Mixed-effects, grouped-time survival analysis assessed risk of suicidal behavior and differential effects of risk factors for suicidal behavior by polarity. In addition to polarity, the main effects of age, gender, hopelessness, married status, prior suicide attempts and active substance abuse were modeled, with mood cycle as the unit of analysis.
After controlling for age of onset, there were no differences in prior suicide attempts by polarity although bipolar participants had more prior severe attempts. During follow-up, 40 cycles ended in suicide and 384 cycles contained at least one suicide attempt. Age, hopelessness and active substance abuse but not polarity predicted suicidal behavior. The effects of risk factors did not differ by polarity.
Bipolarity does not independently influence risk of suicidal behavior or alter the influence of well-established suicide risk factors within affective disorders. Suicide risk assessment strategies may continue to appraise these common risk factors without regard to mood polarity.
A new method of generation of nanosecond soft X-ray pulses with a photon energy around 1 keV is presented. X-rays are generated in a high-temperature plasma, which is created as a result of the interaction of Nd:glass laser radiation with a gas puff target. The target was obtained by puffing a small amount of gas through the nozzle into the vacuum chamber by means of a pressure electromagnetic valve. The pulses of laser radiation, with pulse duration of 1 ns and energy up to 15 J, generated in the system of a high-power Nd:glass laser were used for the target heating. Spatial, spectral, and temporal measurements of X-ray emission have shown that the high-intensity soft X rays are generated as a result of the interaction of nanosecond pulses of Nd:glass laser radiation with the gas puff target. A high efficiency of X-ray generation is suggested to be related to the effect of condensation of the gas outflowing from the valve nozzle and, in effect, to the interaction of laser radiation with matter in a form of aerosol.
In this article, we present the formation of an elongated plasma column by combining a laser plasma with an external magnetic field. The laser plasma is produced by irradiating solid targets with a focused Nd-glass laser. The targets were placed on the axis of the two, single-turn magnetic coils, which provided a magnetic field up to 500 kg in the target region. The expanding laser plasma is confined by the magnetic field and an elongated and uniform plasma column is formed on the axis of the coils. The plasma column emits strong, soft X-ray radiation. The pinhole photographs show that the plasma column is at least 5 mm long. To study the interaction of the expanding laser plasma with a magnetic field, the laser probing diagnostic was used.
A program is under way to develop methods and instrumentation based on charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors for hot plasma diagnostics. We have developed a new X-ray spectrometer in which a freestanding X-ray transmission grating is coupled to a CCD linear array detector with electronic digitized readout replacing film and its wet processing. This instrument measures time-integrated pulsed X-ray spectra with moderate spectral resolution (δλ ≤ 0.6 nm) over a broad spectral range (0.3–2 keV) with high sensitivity, linearity, and large dynamic range. The performance of the device was tested using laser plasma as the X-ray source.
Thermal energy transport in laser-irradiated glass microshells coated with polystyrene/metal layers seems to be dominated by hot spots. These are connected with filaments which are enhanced by hydrodynamic instability of the Rayleigh-Taylor type.
The paper presents results of an investigation of energy transport in 6-μm aluminum foils covered with a silver or gold layer irradiated with 1·06-μm, 1-ns laser-pulse at intensities 1013to 1014 W/cm2. The increase in mass ablation rate and volume heating of accelerated fragment of the foil as well as the increased range of lateral energy transport were registered. The measured plasma parameters from aluminum foils were used for testing the one-dimesional numerical code.
The mass ablation rate and ablation pressure on laser-irradiated spherical microshells were measured using the space-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. A new method for the study of the ablation by means of the Doppler shifted X-ray images is proposed. The time-resolved measurements of X-ray emission from layered microtargets allow us to determine the heat front penetration through the microshell wall.
This paper presents the results of laser-produced plasma investigations at an intensity of 1014W/cm2. Shadowgraphy, interferometry and second harmonic emission measurements were done to evaluate the main hydrodynamic parameters of the plasma.
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