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Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
Intrauterine or fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is a major complication of pregnancy and leads to significant perinatal morbidities and mortality. Typically, induction of IUGR in animals involves the complete occlusion or ablation of vessels to the uterus or placenta, acutely impairing blood flow and fetal growth, usually with high fetal loss. We aimed to produce a model of reduced fetal growth in the spiny mouse with minimal fetal loss. At 27 days gestational age (term is 38–39 days), a piece of silastic tubing was placed around the left uterine artery to prevent the further increase of uterine blood flow with advancing gestation to induce IUGR (occluded). Controls were generated from sham surgeries without placement of the tubing. Dams were humanely euthanized at 37 days gestational age and all fetuses and placentas were weighed and collected. Of the 17 dams that underwent surgery, 15 carried their pregnancies to 37 days gestational age and 95% of fetuses survived to this time. The difference in fetal body weight between occluded and control was ~21% for fetuses in the left uterus side: there were no differences for fetuses in the right uterus side. Offspring from the occluded group had significantly lower brain, liver, lung, kidney and carcass weights compared with shams. Preventing the gestation-related increase of uterine blood flow induced significant growth restriction in the fetal spiny mouse, with minimal fetal loss. This technique could be readily adapted for other small animal.
Epidemiology formed the basis of ‘the Barker hypothesis’, the concept of ‘developmental programming’ and today’s discipline of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Animal experimentation provided proof of the underlying concepts, and continues to generate knowledge of underlying mechanisms. Interventions in humans, based on DOHaD principles, will be informed by experiments in animals. As knowledge in this discipline has accumulated, from studies of humans and other animals, the complexity of interactions between genome, environment and epigenetics, has been revealed. The vast nature of programming stimuli and breadth of effects is becoming known. As a result of our accumulating knowledge we now appreciate the impact of many variables that contribute to programmed outcomes. To guide further animal research in this field, the Australia and New Zealand DOHaD society (ANZ DOHaD) Animals Models of DOHaD Research Working Group convened at the 2nd Annual ANZ DOHaD Congress in Melbourne, Australia in April 2015. This review summarizes the contributions of animal research to the understanding of DOHaD, and makes recommendations for the design and conduct of animal experiments to maximize relevance, reproducibility and translation of knowledge into improving health and well-being.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
While a timely conceptual innovation for the digital age, the “map” proposed by Bentley et al. would benefit from strengthening through the inclusion of a non–clock-time perspective. In this way, there could be new hypotheses developed which could be applied and tested relevant to more diverse societies, cultures, and individuals.
The French Revolution began with the astonishing events of 1789, but it has to be seen as an intense and profound process that changed and developed dramatically over the following decade and more. Its political and social experiments changed a great many aspects of French life, and these changes also had a major impact on all of France's neighbours, including Great Britain. The Revolution led to a bitter dispute across Europe about the French principles of ‘liberty, equality and fraternity’, and, because the French revolutionaries sought to export these principles to the rest of Europe, it helped to provoke a war that posed an enormous challenge to France and all its neighbours. The French Revolution and the French Revolutionary war were the most discussed issues in British politics and the British press. The Revolutionary debate of the 1790s in Britain had a profound influence on the political, religious and cultural life of the country, while the French war produced almost unprecedented economic and social strains, and forced Britain to make a huge military, naval and financial effort to counter French ambitions. For a great many Britons the 1790s were a decade of crisis that polarized British society into the friends and enemies of the French Revolutionary cause. To understand the nature of this crisis, we need to appreciate the ideological disputes in Britain about French Revolutionary principles, to explore how these disputes encouraged Britons to support or oppose these principles, and to examine how these disputes strengthened the party of government, and seriously undermined the opposition in Parliament.
We report a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum presenting with chest and anterior neck pain.
The clinical findings, differential diagnosis and selection of radiological investigations are discussed.
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an uncommon condition usually presenting in young patients. Presentation to the otolaryngology department occurs due to the presence of symptoms such as neck pain. Differential diagnoses must be considered and excluded, using the clinical features and the results of radiological investigation. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, conservative management is undertaken.
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is uncommon and the clinical features are variable. The recommended investigation is a computed tomography scan with orally administered, water soluble contrast to exclude important differential diagnoses and thus enable definitive diagnosis.
Two mouse-adapted scrapie agents of different sheep origin were compared. The titre, reached in the brains of mice in the terminal stage of scrapie, is of the same order for both agents. There is a threefold difference between the incubation periods of the two agents in some mouse strains, of which C57 is one, and in this strain incubation of the 22A agent, given as a large dose by a peripheral route, occupies almost the whole life-span.
The most fundamental difference between the agents concerns the reversal of the ranking of incubation periods, typically in the VM and C57 mouse strams: incubation of ME7 in VM takes almost twice as long as in C57, whereas most sub-lines of 22A take half as long in VM as in C57. The implications of this type of host-genotype, agent-strain interaction are discussed in terms of the possible nature of agent differences, the possibility of latent infection and the consequences for scrapie eradication programmes.
We have used the BzK-selection to identify a composite population of passive, and star-forming galaxies at redshifts 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). Using an unprecedented large sample of galaxies in this redshift range, we characterize the morphological diversity through the analysis of the surface-brightness profile shapes for 171 galaxies with passive SEDs, and 1068 star-forming galaxies. We find that the z ~ 2 galaxies display a wide range of morphologies, from spheroidals to disk-like. Interestingly, the galaxies with passively-evolving SEDs predominantly have steep profiles as seen for the classical bulges at low redshifts, although they are very compact with re < 3 kpc. The star-forming galaxies on the other hand exhibit mostly disk-like and merger morphologies, and have sizes comparable to their low−z counterparts. Our results emphasize the need for an unbiased selection in order to reveal the morphological diversities, and range of galaxy properties at high redshifts.
We search for massive and evolved galaxies at z ≥ 5 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) southern field. Combining HST ACS, VLT ISAAC and Spitzer IRAC broad–band photometric data, we develop a color selection technique to identify candidates for being evolved galaxies at high redshifts. The color selection is primarily based on locating the Balmer–break using the K- and 3.6 μm bands. Stellar population synthesis models are fitted to the SEDs of these galaxies to identify the final sample. We find 11 candidates with photometric redshifts in the range 4.9 < z < 5.6, dominated by an old stellar population, with ages 0.2-1.0 Gyr, and stellar masses in the range (0.7 − 5) × 1011 M⊙. Most of the candidates have modest amounts of internal dust extinction. The majority of the stars in these galaxies were formed at z>9 and the current star formation activity is a few percent of the inferred initial star formation rate.
The current conduction in GaN is very topical and is the topic of a vast amount of research. By simultaneously mapping the topography and the current distribution, conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) has the potential to establish a correlation between topological features and localized current paths. In this study, this technique was applied to image the conduction properties of as-grown and post-growth chemically etched samples GaN epitaxial layers on a microscopic scale. Our results show that prismatic planes have a significantly higher conductivity than the surrounding areas of the sample surface. A large and stable local current was mainly observed from the walls of the etched pits, under forward and reverse bias of the metallized AFM tip/semiconductor junction.
Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a specific variant of exercise-induced anaphylaxis that requires both vigorous physical activity and the ingestion of specific foods within the preceding several hours. When patients present to the emergency department (ED) with allergic reactions, careful history regarding these 2 factors is required to establish the correct diagnosis. Correct diagnosis of FDEIA will allow patients to take control of their lifestyles and avert repeated events and ED visits. Two cases of FDEIA are presented, and the diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapy of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis are reviewed.
The functional relations between the coordinates of points on a manifold make the
study of Diophantine approximation on manifolds much harder than the classical
theory in which the variables are independent. Nevertheless there has been considerable
progress in the metric theory of Diophantine approximation on smooth manifolds.
To describe this, some notation and terminology are needed.
The whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus vanzoi is a large-bodied teiid found only on
two islands (Maria Major and Maria Minor), off St Lucia, West Indies. In May 1995, 42 lizards from
Maria Major were introduced to the smaller uninhabited Praslin Island on the same coastline. Three
years post-release, we studied abundance, demography and morphometrics of the translocated lizard
population, during a 6-month period covering wet and dry seasons. Age, sex, snout–vent length
(SVL), body mass (BM), tail length, tail regeneration, and overall condition (moulting, reproductive
condition, cuts, external parasites) of 107 animals caught during the study are analysed in the
present paper. Comparisons are also made with the source population. A body condition index (CI
(BM/SVL)), sex ratio (adult males : adult females), age ratio (adults : juveniles), and sexual
size dimorphism ratio (SVL adult male : SVL adult females) were calculated for the study population.
Distance sampling and mark–re-sight surveys were used to estimate population size and lizard
density. A total of 155 ± 26 individuals were estimated. The lizard population was found to
have a high growth rate (r = 0.97–3.95). There were significant seasonal changes in
lizard abundance. Seasonal differences in lizard numbers, BM and CI suggest either severe resource
limitation during the dry season, or selective aestivation. A high frequency of tail autotomy may
point to intense intraspecific competition as the island is relatively free from main predators such
as the black rat Rattus rattus. Sex ratio, sexual size dimorphism and sexual dichromatism all
indicate a territorial species in a generally non-territorial family (Teiidae). Some adult males seem
to maintain juvenile colours. It is suggested that the introduced population has successfully
colonized its new environment and that no significant change in the animals condition or size has
occurred during the 3 years since translocation.