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In the diversity arena, women and their heterogeneity as visible ethnic minority migrants at work are under researched. Our qualitative empirical research reveals, and compares, how visible ethnic women migrants (VEWM) experience their journey to professional success in Iceland and New Zealand. These island nations rank in the top six of the Global Gender Gap Index, have women Prime Ministers, and increasing demographic diversity. The findings reveal that for VEWM success is a continuous journey with many different challenges. VEWM reject the notion of success as accumulation of things or titles, emphasizing instead how success is experienced. For VEWM in Iceland, success means independent hard work and aligning with other women. VEWM in New Zealand experience success through religion and giving back to the community. These differences are explored and theorized, contributing to an expanding literature of migrant complexities, beyond monolithic representations of gender at work.
Rumination has been shown to play a part in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its relation to the intrusions characteristic of PTSD has mainly been investigated experimentally. This proof-of-concept case study explored the occurrence, personal experiences, and possible relation between rumination and intrusions in two PTSD patients in their daily living using a mixed method approach. A novel wearable self-tracking instrument was employed which provided fine-grained temporal resolution of observation data and could eliminate recall bias. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative data were collected on participants’ symptoms, rumination and experiences of using the self-tracking instrument. First, without distinguishing between the two phenomena, the participants tracked both for a week. After receiving psychoeducational training for distinguishing between rumination and intrusions, the differentiated phenomena were tracked for a week. Both participants reported being subjectively able to distinguish between rumination and intrusions and made observations with high adherence during the project. Data hinted at a possible temporal relation between the phenomena in line with theories posing rumination as a maladaptive coping strategy as well as an exacerbator of PTSD symptoms. However, relations to mood were inconclusive. Furthermore, by using the self-tracking instrument, participants gained a heightened awareness of the characteristics of rumination and intrusions and contextual cues for occurrence, as well as a greater sense of momentary agency. Results reveal promising prospects in using the wearable self-tracking instrument for further investigation of the relation between rumination and intrusions in the lived lives of PTSD patients, as well as potential for incorporating this method in clinical treatment.
Key learning aims
(1) Self-tracking with the One Button Tracker is a novel symptom registration method, particularly suited for use in psychotherapeutic treatment and research.
(2) Rumination and intrusions appear to the participants as distinct cognitive phenomena and treatment targets in PTSD.
(3) Registering rumination and intrusions in real-time could reveal important temporal relations between them and the contexts in which they occur.
(4) The data obtained with this self-tracking method can potentially be used as a tool in, and for the further development of psychotherapy for PTSD.
Instruments for diagnosing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood are well validated and reliable, but psychometric assessment of ADHD in adults remains problematic. To date the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) are frequently used in the assessment of ADHD.
The CAARS were translated into German and a series of studies planned to establish psychometric properties of the CAARS-self and -observer rating scales.
To evaluate the German version of the CAARS.
We recruited 847 healthy German subjects and 466 adult ADHD patients to fill out the CAARS-self report and questions on socio-demographic variables. Additionally, 896 CAARS-observer reports were filled out by significant others and clinical experts. Factor analyses were conducted to obtain factor structure and to replicate the structure of the original American-model. Comparisons between patients and controls, and analyses on influences of gender, age, and education level were calculated. Additional analyses established psychometric properties.
Confirmative factor analysis based on the original American-model showed a high model-fit for both the German healthy control and the adult ADHD patient sample. Analyses of normative data showed significant influences of age, gender, and education level on the emerging subscales for the control sample only. Differences on all subscales were highly significant between patients and controls. Test-, test-retest-reliability was very high, and criterion validity could be established with DSM-IV based clinical interviews. Sensitivity and specificity ratings are overall very satisfying.
The German version of the CAARS is a cross-culturally valid instrument for the assessment of adult ADHD.
The emergency admissions to hospital care in six psychiatric services in four Nordic countries were explored as a part of a Nordic comparative study on sectorised psychiatry. One year treated incidence cohorts were used, with the total cohort comprising 2,454 patients. Of the 803 patients who were admitted to inpatient care during a 1-year follow-up, 82% had at least one emergency admission and 23% repeated emergency admissions. The definition for the repeated emergency admissions was at least two admissions during the follow-up. The mean length of stay in emergency inpatient care per treatment episode for this patient subgroup was 28 days. Their emergency inpatient episodes constituted 30% of all inpatient days during the follow-up. However, the variations between the services and diagnostic subgroups were large. The results of a logistic regression analysis indicated that the following variables predicted repeated emergency admissions: inpatient care at index contact, emergency outpatient contacts or no planned hospital admissions during the follow-up, psychiatric service, age under 45 years, and a diagnosis of psychosis, personality disorder or dependency. The repeated emergency admissions were related to the existence of a special service unit for abusers but not to the rates of outpatient staff or acute beds in the services, to geographical distances, referral practice or existence of emergency services.
The German version of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) has proven to show very high model fit in confirmative factor analyses with the established factors inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept in both large healthy control and ADHD patient samples. This study now presents data on the psychometric properties of the German CAARS-self-report (CAARS-S) and observer-report (CAARS-O) questionnaires.
CAARS-S/O and questions on sociodemographic variables were filled out by 466 patients with ADHD, 847 healthy control subjects that already participated in two prior studies, and a total of 896 observer data sets were available. Cronbach's-alpha was calculated to obtain internal reliability coefficients. Pearson correlations were performed to assess test-retest reliability, and concurrent, criterion, and discriminant validity. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC-analyses) were used to establish sensitivity and specificity for all subscales.
Coefficient alphas ranged from .74 to .95, and test-retest reliability from .85 to .92 for the CAARS-S, and from .65 to .85 for the CAARS-O. All CAARS subscales, except problems with self-concept correlated significantly with the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), but not with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Criterion validity was established with ADHD subtype and diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were high for all four subscales.
The reported results confirm our previous study and show that the German CAARS-S/O do indeed represent a reliable and cross-culturally valid measure of current ADHD symptoms in adults.
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of air stable cobalt and nickel complexes based on tridentate enaminones N,N-(4,4,4-trifluorobut-1-en-3-on)-dimethylethyldiamine (Htfb-dmeda) and N,N-(4,4,4-trifluorobut-1-en-3-on)-dimethylpropyldiamine (Htfb-dmpda) successfully produced metallic cobalt and nickel thin films. Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies on the binding interaction of the first precursor monolayer with the surface functional groups elucidated the chemisorption behavior of the new precursor systems. A reactive remote hydrogen plasma was used as the co-reactant to activate the precursor decomposition yielding metal hydroxide intermediates. Subsequent hydrogen plasma etching of as-deposited films resulted in phase-pure metallic films through a recrystallization process, verified by surface and sub-surface XPS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses revealed pinhole-free films, with low surface roughness (0.2 ± 0.06 nm root mean square, RMS) for both, cobalt and nickel thin films. Herein, the competitive role of hydrogen as etchant and reactant was demonstrated as prolonged plasma exposure time periods resulted in the formation of metal hydrides. This is mostly due to the catalytic dissociation of molecular hydrogen on transition metal surfaces, which already occurs upon low energy input.
The University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) is a unique institution with a history that is closely related to Norwegian policy regarding Svalbard, and to clever development of a highly specialised Arctic university institution by all the Norwegian universities. In practical terms, Norwegian sovereignty on the archipelago as confirmed by the Treaty of Svalbard of 1920 and regulated by the Svalbard Law of 1925, is maintained by the presence of Norwegian civil authorities and communities. Today, the “capital” Longyearbyen with its 2100 inhabitants is a modern hub for industry, education, research, logistics and tourism. Founded in 1993, UNIS has become a main contributor to this community, generating some 20% of the total economic activity. A prime motivation for establishing UNIS was to provide a supplement and alternative to the unprofitable, heavily subsidized coal mining industry, by using the location for research based education. In 2015, the mining company Store Norske Spitsbergen Kullkompani (SNSK) met with deep crisis again and significantly downscaled its coal production and work force. Thus, UNIS may play an even more important role as a cornerstone of the local community in the future. This paper discusses the establishment and development of UNIS, its organisation, capacity, and academic production in terms of student graduation and its scientific output, just as its future potential for growth is evaluated. Finally, we discuss the increasingly important role of science and education in Norwegian Svalbard policy.
Spatial distribution patterns of microzooplankton (0.055–0.3 mm) biomass and abundance were studied in relation to the hydrographic situation and the local flow field in the waters off Ampère and Senghor, two shallow seamounts in the subtropical and tropical NE Atlantic, in comparison with unaffected open ocean reference sites. Ampère was sampled during November/December 2010 and Senghor during December 2011 and February 2013. The study includes taxonomic composition, abundance of meroplanktonic larvae and an estimation of the respiratory carbon demand. Biomass (dry weight) standing stocks of microzooplankton in the upper 100 m ranged between 30–120 mg m−2 over Ampère and 140–260 mg m−2 over Senghor Seamount, corresponding to 33 and 24% of the total zooplankton (0.055–20 mm). Highest total abundance was always found in the upper 50 m with numbers of 1070–5060 Ind m−3 at Ampère and 5050–20,000 Ind m−3 at Senghor with microzooplankton contributing 70–95%. Zooplankton accumulated mainly at the thermocline coincident with the deep fluorescence maximum and was ascertained by food supply rather than by oxygen limitation. The microzooplankton contribution to the total respiratory carbon demand was ~50% in the subtropical waters off Ampère and ~30% at Senghor, reflecting the important role of microzooplankton in the waters of the NE Atlantic subtropical gyre. Clear evidence of local seamount effects resulting in enhanced microzooplankton biomass compared with the unaffected reference sites were not detected. However, we confirmed Senghor as a hotspot for meroplanktonic larvae, suggesting a retention potential that results in significantly enhanced larval abundance in the seamount waters as compared with the open ocean.
If human language must be squeezed through a narrow cognitive bottleneck, what are the implications for language processing, acquisition, change, and structure? In our target article, we suggested that the implications are far-reaching and form the basis of an integrated account of many apparently unconnected aspects of language and language processing, as well as suggesting revision of many existing theoretical accounts. With some exceptions, commentators were generally supportive both of the existence of the bottleneck and its potential implications. Many commentators suggested additional theoretical and linguistic nuances and extensions, links with prior work, and relevant computational and neuroscientific considerations; some argued for related but distinct viewpoints; a few, though, felt traditional perspectives were being abandoned too readily. Our response attempts to build on the many suggestions raised by the commentators and to engage constructively with challenges to our approach.
This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words. Sensitivity to tone was assessed using minimal pairs differing only in one syllable (nonword task: e.g., to-kà-su compared to ca-fí-to) or only in tone (tone task: e.g., to-kà-su compared to to-ká-su). Proficiency in an East Asian heritage language was the strongest predictor of success on the tone task. Asians without tone language experience were no better than other ethnic groups. We conclude by considering implications for research on second language learning, especially as approached through artificial language learning.
Memory is fleeting. New material rapidly obliterates previous material. How, then, can the brain deal successfully with the continual deluge of linguistic input? We argue that, to deal with this “Now-or-Never” bottleneck, the brain must compress and recode linguistic input as rapidly as possible. This observation has strong implications for the nature of language processing: (1) the language system must “eagerly” recode and compress linguistic input; (2) as the bottleneck recurs at each new representational level, the language system must build a multilevel linguistic representation; and (3) the language system must deploy all available information predictively to ensure that local linguistic ambiguities are dealt with “Right-First-Time”; once the original input is lost, there is no way for the language system to recover. This is “Chunk-and-Pass” processing. Similarly, language learning must also occur in the here and now, which implies that language acquisition is learning to process, rather than inducing, a grammar. Moreover, this perspective provides a cognitive foundation for grammaticalization and other aspects of language change. Chunk-and-Pass processing also helps explain a variety of core properties of language, including its multilevel representational structure and duality of patterning. This approach promises to create a direct relationship between psycholinguistics and linguistic theory. More generally, we outline a framework within which to integrate often disconnected inquiries into language processing, language acquisition, and language change and evolution.
The development of efficient large-area organic light emitting diodes (OLED) requires reliable and easily processable charge generation layers (CGL) with low excess voltage drop and high optical transparency. OVPD offers the advantage of a precise control of layer morphology, composition and thickness and is a powerful method for the deposition of advanced OLED designs. In this work, electrical doping of organic semiconductors using OVPD is investigated and applied to stacked OLED utilizing inorganic/organic CGL. The organic p-type dopant NDP-9 of Novaled GmbH is used for doping the hole transport material N,N‘-diphenyl-N,N‘-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1‘-biphenyl-4,4‘-diamine (α-NPD) in an AIXTRON OVPD tool. A doping concentration of 8 vol.% of NDP-9 in α-NPD is found optimal for hole injection as well as conductivity. This dopant concentration was employed in CGL with the structure: electron transport material/LiF/Al/α-NPD:8 vol.% NDP-9. External quantum efficiencies (EQE) of 15%, 35% and 50% and luminous efficiencies of 37 lm/W, 45 lm/W and 45 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2 are demonstrated for single, double- and triple-unit green phosphorescent OLED, respectively.
Although Pickering & Garrod (P&G) argue convincingly for a unified system for language comprehension and production, they fail to explain how such a system might develop. Using a recent computational model of language acquisition as an example, we sketch a developmental perspective on the integration of comprehension and production. We conclude that only through development can we fully understand the intertwined nature of comprehension and production in adult processing.
Dietary fat is normally in TAG form, but diacylglycerol (DAG) is a natural component of edible oils. Studies have shown that consumption of DAG results in metabolic characteristics that are distinct from those of TAG, which may be beneficial in preventing and managing obesity. The objective of the present study was to investigate if food items in which part of the TAG oil is replaced with DAG oil combined with high α-linolenic acid (ALA) content would influence metabolic markers. A 12-week double-blinded randomised controlled parallel-design study was conducted. The participants (n 23) were healthy, overweight men and women, aged 37–67 years, BMI 27–35 kg/m2, with waist circumference >94 cm (men) and >88 cm (women). The two groups received 20 g margarine, 11 g mayonnaise and 12 g oil per d, containing either high ALA and sn-1,3-DAG or high ALA and TAG. Substitution of TAG oil with DAG oil in food items for 12 weeks led to an improvement of the predicted 10 years cardiovascular risk score in overweight subjects by non-significantly improving markers of health such as total body fat percentage, trunk fat mass, alanine aminotransferase, systolic blood pressure, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and total fat-free mass. This may suggest that replacing TAG oil with DAG oil in healthy, overweight individuals may have beneficial metabolic effects.
We provide a notion of finite element system, that enables the construction of spaces of differential forms, which can be used for the numerical solution of variationally posed partial differential equations. Within this framework, we introduce a form of upwinding, with the aim of stabilizing methods for the purposes of computational fluid dynamics, in the vanishing viscosity regime.
I am deeply honored to have received the first Stephen Smale prize from the Society for the Foundations of Computational Mathematics.
I want to thank the jury for deciding, in what I understand was a difficult weighing process, to tip the balance in my favor. The tiny margins that similarly enable the Gömböc to find its way to equilibrium, give me equal pleasure to contemplate. It's a beautiful prize trophy.
It is a great joy to receive a prize that celebrates the unity of mathematics. I hope it will draw attention to the satisfaction there can be, in combining theoretical musings with potent applications. Differential geometry, which infuses most of my work, is a good example of a subject that defies perceived boundaries, equally appealing to craftsmen of various trades.
As I was entering the subject, rumors that Smale could turn spheres inside out without pinching, were among the legends that gave it a sense of surprise and mystery. I also remember reading about Turing machines built on rings other than ℤ/2ℤ, which, together with parallelism and quantum computing, convinced me that the foundations of our subject were still in the making.
Objective: There is clear evidence of a genetic component in major depression, and several studies indicate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) could play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. A well-known polymorphism encoding the substitution of leucine to proline in the signal peptide sequence of NPY (Leu7Pro variation) was previously found to protect against depression. Our study aimed at replicating this association in a large Danish population with major depression.
Method: Leu7Pro was studied in a sample of depressed patients and ethnically matched controls, as well as psychiatric disease controls with schizophrenia. Possible functional consequences of Leu7Pro were explored in vitro.
Results: In contrast to previous studies, Pro7 appeared to be a risk allele for depression, being significantly more frequent in the depression sample (5.5%, n = 593; p = 0.009; odds ratio, OR: 1.46) as compared to ethnically matched controls (3.8%, n = 2912), while schizophrenia patients (4.1%, n = 503) did not differ. In vitro, the Pro7 substitution appeared to be associated with reduced levels of NPY without affecting its mRNA level.
Conclusion: The Leu7Pro variation may increase the risk of major depression, possibly by affecting the biosynthesis of NPY.
Uncertainty about future energy and water supplies suggests a pressing need to develop efficient technologies for water desalination. Capacitive deionization (CDI), a method that captures ions in the electrical double layer (EDL) of an electrochemical capacitor, is a promising technology that can potentially fulfill those requirements. Similar to supercapacitors, ideal CDI electrodes should have a large electrolyte-accessible specific surface area available for ion adsorption with rapid charging/discharging characteristics. Unlike supercapacitors, CDI electrodes are required to operate in aqueous electrolytes with low ionic concentrations in a non-linear charging regime. To explore this practically and theoretically important regime, we developed robust, electrochemically-compatible carbon nanotube (CNT) carpet electrodes that posses a well-defined and uniform pore structure that is more readily analyzed in comparison to the random and multi-scale pore structure of typical carbon electrodes. The fabricated electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic charging in aqueous NaCl solutions (no = 20 - 90 mM) using a three electrode setup. Examination of the CV and potentiostatically-measured capacitances were consistent with EDL behavior dictated by the Stern layer. However, some deviations from the expected behavior were observed with increasing salt concentration during potentiostatic testing.