To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To identify the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement.
Twenty-eight patients with relapsing polychondritis, hospitalised in the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University between April 2011 and April 2021, were retrospectively analysed.
Fifty per cent of relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement had a lower risk of ear and ocular involvement. Relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement had a longer time-to-diagnosis (p < 0.001), a poorer outcome following glucocorticoid combined with immunosuppressant treatment (p = 0.004), and a higher recurrence rate than those without airway involvement (p = 0.004). The rates of positive findings on chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy in relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement were 88.9 per cent and 85.7 per cent, respectively. Laryngoscopy analysis showed that 66.7 per cent of relapsing polychondritis patients had varying degrees of mucosal lesions.
For relapsing polychondritis patients with airway involvement, drug treatment should be combined with local airway management.
We report on experimental observation of non-laminar proton acceleration modulated by a strong magnetic field in laser irradiating micrometer aluminum targets. The results illustrate the coexistence of ring-like and filamentation structures. We implement the knife edge method into the radiochromic film detector to map the accelerated beams, measuring a source size of 30–110 μm for protons of more than 5 MeV. The diagnosis reveals that the ring-like profile originates from low-energy protons far off the axis whereas the filamentation is from the near-axis high-energy protons, exhibiting non-laminar features. Particle-in-cell simulations reproduced the experimental results, showing that the short-term magnetic turbulence via Weibel instability and the long-term quasi-static annular magnetic field by the streaming electric current account for the measured beam profile. Our work provides direct mapping of laser-driven proton sources in the space-energy domain and reveals the non-laminar beam evolution at featured time scales.
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens in Beijing, China, is rarely reported. In this study, 34 911 symptomatic outpatients with suspected genital infections who attended outpatient clinics in a tertiary care hospital were included to investigate the updated prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2016 in Beijing, China. Results indicated that a decrease trend (UU, CT, NG and HSV) in male and an increase trend (UU, CT and NG) in female were observed during the period. Patients aged 20–39 years old were mostly affected by these pathogens, while the prevalence in patients aged 20–29 years old was the highest, The prevalence of UU in male was significantly lower than in female (31.5% vs. 49.3%, P < 0.05), while the prevalence of NG in male was significantly higher than in female (2.5% vs. 0.8%, P < 0.05). In patients with co-infections, 60.6% of male and 71.4% of female were co-infected by UU + CT. In total, 11.9% and 88.1% of patients with HSV infections were confirmed to be infected by HSV-1 and HSV-2. This study could contribute to a better understanding of the current epidemiological features of UU, NG, CT and HSV among symptomatic patients attending an outpatient clinic in Beijing, China, and thus facilitate to develop more effective intervention, prevention and treatment of STI.
Limited information is available on the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the general population in China. A community-based epidemiological study was conducted in three counties in eastern China. A total of 149 175 individuals were investigated in 60 communities in three counties in Jiangsu province, eastern China, of whom 1175 subjects [0·79%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·74–0·83] were HCV antibody positive. The prevalence was low in children (0·09%, 95% CI 0·04–0·17), but increased progressively from adolescents (0·20%, 95% CI 0·15–0·28) to adults aged ⩾21 years (95% CI 0·15–1·64). Women had a higher prevalence of HCV infection than men in most age groups. In a multilevel regression analysis, age, sex, education, occupation, blood transfusion [odds ratio (OR) 2·91, 95% CI 1·09–5·37], invasive testing (OR 1·28, 95% CI 1·14–1·61), and dental therapy (OR 2·27, 95% CI 1·41–3·42) were associated with HCV infection. In conclusion, although the prevalence of HCV in this population was lower than reported from national levels, the total reservoir of infection is significant and warrants public health measures, such as health education to limit the magnitude of the problem.
The autumn migration of the rice leaf roller moth, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée, in eastern China was studied at two sites (one in southern Jiangsu Province and one in northern Jiangxi Province), using radar and aerial netting. It was confirmed that C. medinalis is a high-altitude nocturnal windborne migrant, with large numbers of moths taking-off at dusk and flying continuously for several hours. Migration was post-teneral and the females had immature ovaries. Maximum densities of the moths typically occurred between 250 and 550 m above ground, and layering was intense on some nights. Moth layers often occurred at an altitude where there was a wind-speed maximum. In early September, migrant C. medinalis from southern Jiangsu Province were carried on the winds in an approximately westward direction. However, the winds prevailing in late September and October took migrants from both sites towards the south-west or south. Forward trajectories for C. medinalis and other insects emigrating from northern Jiangxi during October indicated that they were able to reach the tropical rice-growing areas near the south China coast, where year-round breeding would be possible. Incidental observations on the migratory flight of other lepidopteran pests, including Mythimna separata (Walker), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (all Nocturidae), Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius) and particularly Omiodes indicata (Fabricius) (both Pyralidae) are presented.
We have studied the enhancement of radiative emission
rate of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots on semi-continuous gold films which
have been prepared by using sputtering technique. The photoluminescence
intensity and the decay rate of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots are affected by the
semi-continuous gold films. Both the photoluminescence intensity and the
decay rate of the quantum dots are greatly enhanced by the semi-continuous
gold films near the conductive percolation threshold and that are caused by
the enhanced local electric field due to the surface plasmon resonance on
the semi-continuous gold films.
High critical current density (high-Jc) YBa2Cu3O7–δ (YBCO) films were obtained by pulsed laser ablation on biaxially textured Cu substrates. To achieve epitaxy of LaMnO3 (LMO) on Cu, thin epitaxial Ni overlayers were deposited on Cu tapes. The structure comprises the layer sequence of YBCO/LMO/Ni/Cu. For 200-nm-thick YBCO, self-field Jc values exceeding 1 × 106 A/cm2 at 77 K were achieved. Characterization of these short prototype conductors revealed good structural and morphological properties. Magnetic analysis suggested that hysteretic loss due to the ferromagnetic Ni overlayer is minimal.
A single layer of La2Zr2O7 (LZO), deposited on textured Ni and Ni–1.7% Fe–3% W (Ni–W) tapes by a low-cost sol-gel process, is used as buffer layer for the growth of YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) coated conductors. It is shown for the first time that such single buffer layers can be used for the deposition of YBCO yielding critical current densities (Jc) that are comparable to those typically obtained using CeO2/YSZ/Y2O2 trilayers on identical substrates, i.e., in excess of 1 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field. The properties of the YBCO films and the dependence of Jc on thickness of the LZO layer are investigated.
The growth mechanisms of MgB2 films obtained by different methods on various substrates are comparably studied by transport measurements and scanning electron microscopy observations. The analyzed films include those prepared by ex situ postanneal with Tc0 ˜38.8 K and those from in situ anneal with Tc0 ˜24 K. It is clearly observed that the films obtained by the high-temperature reaction of e-beam evaporated B with Mg vapor are formed by the nucleation of independent MgB2 grains at the film surface, indicating that this approach may not be suitable to obtain epitaxial films. A significant oxygen contamination was also present in films obtained from pulsed-laser-deposition-grown precursors, which drag the Tc0 down to 24 K.
In an effort to develop alternative single buffer layer technology for YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors, we have investigated LaMnO3 (LMO) as a potential buffer layer. High-quality LMO films were grown directly on biaxially textured Ni and Ni-W (3%) substrates using rf magnetron sputtering. YBCO films were then grown on LMO buffers using pulsed laser deposition. Detailed X-ray studies have shown that both YBCO and LMO layers were grown with a single epitaxial orientation. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) analyses have indicated the ratio of La to Mn ratio is 1:1. SEM micrographs indicated that 3000-Å-thick LMO films on biaxially textured Ni (100) substrates were dense, continuous and crack-free. A high Jc of over 1 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO films grown on LMO-buffered Ni or Ni-W substrates. We have identified LaMnO3 as a good diffusion barrier layer for Ni and it also provides a good template for growing high current density YBCO films.
Sol-gel processing of La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni-3 at.% W alloy substrates using a continuous reel-to-reel dip-coating unit has been studied. The epitaxial LZO films obtained have a strong cube texture and uniform microstructure. The effect of increasing the annealing speed on the texture, microstructure and the carbon content retained in the film were studied. On top of the LZO films, epitaxial layers of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Ceria (CeO2) were deposited using rf sputtering, and YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO) films were then deposited using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). A critical current density (Jc) of 1.9 MA/cm2 at 77K and self-field and 0.34 MA/cm2 at 77K and 0.5T have been obtained on these films. These values are comparable to those obtained on YBCO films deposited on all-vacuum deposited buffer layers, and are the highest ever obtained using solution seed layers. The use of all-solution buffers for coated conductor processing has also been explored. A critical current density of 1.1 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO films grown be PLD on LZO buffered nickel substrates.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.