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Volumetric atrophy and microstructural alterations in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of the hippocampus have been reported in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, no study to date has jointly investigated concomitant microstructural and volumetric changes of the hippocampus in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
A total of 84 subjects (23 MCI, 17 DLB, 14 AD, and 30 healthy controls) were recruited for a multi-modal imaging (3T MRI and DTI) study that included neuropsychological evaluation. Freesurfer was used to segment the total hippocampus and delineate its subfields. The hippocampal segmentations were co-registered to the mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from the DTI images.
Both AD and MCI groups showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes compared to DLB and controls, predominantly in the CA1 and subiculum subfields. Compared to controls, hippocampal MD was elevated in AD, but not in MCI. DLB was characterized by both volumetric and microstructural preservation of the hippocampus. In MCI, higher hippocampal MD was associated with greater atrophy of the hippocampus and CA1 region. Hippocampal volume was a stronger predictor of memory scores compared to MD within the MCI group.
Through a multi-modal integration, we report novel evidence that the hippocampus in DLB is characterized by both macrostructural and microstructural preservation. Contrary to recent suggestions, our findings do not support the view that DTI measurements of the hippocampus are superior to volumetric changes in characterizing group differences, particularly between MCI and controls.
We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life, depression, as a
risk factor for dementia, using [11C]PK11195 positron emission
tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13
controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly
higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised
[11C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions
associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex,
and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and
subiculum. Our findings suggest neuroinflammation requires further
investigation in late-life depression, both as a possible aetiological
factor and a potential therapeutic target.
The diagnosis of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in a medical officer working in a metropolitan Australian neonatal intensive care unit led to a contact investigation involving 125 neonates, 165 relatives, and 122 healthcare workers with varying degrees of exposure. There was no evidence of nosocomial tuberculosis transmission from the index case.
The meeting was opened by Ted Bowell, president, at 11 am. The 2006 Division III meetings were reviewed by Guy Consolmagno, secretary; as the minutes of those meetings have already been published, they were assumed to be approved.
When solid stands of foxtail millet are cut for swath grazing, the grazing season for cattle is extended and winter feeding costs reduced. The economic success of this practice depends on inexpensive weed control. Eight single- and double-rate herbicide combinations (g ai/ha) were evaluated and compared to a weed-free check: MCPA + bromoxynil (280 + 280 or 560 + 560); MCPA + clopyralid (560 + 100 or 1120 + 200); MCPA + fluroxypyr (562 + 108 or 1124 + 216); and MCPA + clopyralid + fluroxypyr (560 + 100 + 144 or 1120 + 200 + 288). This study was conducted at Indian Head, Saskatchewan (SK) in 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 and at Scott, SK, in 2006 and 2007. Crop injury and dry matter yield were measured. Results of the study indicate that crop injury exceeded 20% at only one out of six sites at 7 to 14 d after herbicide treatment. Double-rate MCPA + bromoxynil treatments had higher injury ratings than the weed-free check 7 to 14 d after treatment in all site years. As the growing season progressed, injury ratings tended to decline except at Scott in 2007, where injury ratings at the 21 to 35 d period were numerically greater than the other two rating periods. There were no differences among treatments for crop biomass production. We conclude that all four herbicide combinations at the labeled rate are safe to use on foxtail millet in Saskatchewan, and probably in other areas with similar environmental growing conditions.
The Working Group was formed at the request of the Board of DivisionIII and approved by the IAU Executive committee in March 2004. This was in recognition of the fact that discoveries in the Trans Neptunian region were repeatedly raising the question of “what is a planet”. The task of the WG was to investigate the options available and give indications of the level of support and opposition for each if more than one option was emerging.
Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy has been used to study multi-metal oxide ceramics that have been designed to sequester radioactive actinide elements for long-term storage and disposal. X-ray fluorescent lines for the various elements have been used for lateral elemental mapping of the materials, and the heterogeneity of the samples is discussed with respect to the elements in the crystallographic phases that have previously been documented by other means of structural and chemical analyses.
Recent studies have suggested that expanded CAG/CTG repeats contribute to the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the nature of this contribution is uncertain and difficult to predict from other known trinucleotide repeat diseases that display much simpler patterns of inheritance. We have sought to replicate and extend earlier findings using Repeat Expansion Detection in an enlarged sample of 152 patients with schizophrenia, 143 patients with bipolar disorder, and 160 controls. We have also examined DNA from the parents of 62 probands with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Our results confirm our earlier, preliminary findings of an association between expanded trinucleotide repeats and both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that trinucleotide repeat expansion can alone explain the complex patterns of inheritance of the functional psychoses neither can this mechanism fully explain apparent anticipation.
‘Prescription-event monitoring’ (PEM) is one of two national systems of post-marketing surveillance in operation in Britain. It identified 22 065 patients who had received NHS prescriptions for alprazolam, and data available on 10 895 of these were analysed. The main reasons for treatment with alprazolam were anxiety and depression. The patients provided 3360 patient-years of treatment and 7540 patient-years of follow-up. No serious events clearly associated with treatment were recorded. The main events reported during treatment, albeit infrequently, were drowsiness and depression, although depression is more likely to be due to the disorder being treated than to the drug. Some of the other alleged unwanted effects of alprazolam in published reports were not encountered. Since PEM is unable to determine the dependence potential of alprazolam, further evaluation of this problem is called for.
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