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In order to identify the density and material type, high energy protons, electrons, and heavy ions are used to radiograph dense objects. The particles pass through the object, undergo multiple coulomb scattering, and are focused onto an image plane by a magnetic lens system. A modified beam line at the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has been developed for heavy-ion radiography. It can radiograph a static object with a spatial resolution of about 65 µm (1 σ). This paper presents the heavy-ion radiography facility at the Institute of Modern Physics, including the beam optics, the simulation of radiography by Monte Carlo code and the experimental result with 600 MeV/u carbon ions. In addition, dedicated beam lines for proton radiography which are planned are also introduced.
We present a novel robust control scheme that deals with multi-body spacecraft attitude tracking problems. The control scheme consists of a radial basis function network (RBFN) and a robust controller. By using the finite time convergence property of the terminal sliding mode (TSM), we derive a new online learning algorithm for updating all the parameters of the RBFN that ensures the RBFN has fast approximation for the parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. We design a robust controller to compensate RBFN approximation errors and realise the anticipative stability and performance properties. We can also achieve closed-loop system stability using Lyapunov stability theory.
No detailed knowledge of the non-linear dynamics of the spacecraft is required at any point in the entire design process, and the proposed robust scheme is simple and effective and can be applied to more complex systems. Simulation results demonstrate the good tracking characteristics of the proposed control scheme in the presence of inertial uncertainties and external disturbances.
Polyamide 66 (PA66) nanotubes with an array structure were prepared by infiltrating a solution of normal molecular weight PA66 into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates with a pore diameter of 200 nm. The results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) demonstrate that PA66 nanotubes with a wall thickness of about 60 nm can be fabricated by a solution-wetting method and PA66 nanotubes and nanowires can be obtained by a melt-wetting method at different temperature. We also find that PA66 nanotubes have the “super plasticity” for the crystalline belts in their wall may arrange by spiraling and rounding style. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates the nanotubes have a better thermal stability than bulk polymer PA66. The mechanism of forming polymer nanotubes by polymer melt-wetting method has been proposed.
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