The soil weed seedbank is the source of future weed infestations. Seed predation can result in a large number of seed losses, thus contributing to weed biocontrol. Earthworms are important predators of seeds and seedlings and affect seeds and seedling survival after gut passage. A study was conducted to assess the ability of Pheretima guillelmi (Kinberg) to ingest and digest the seeds and seedlings of 15 main farmland weed species. Pheretima guillelmi ingested the seeds and seedlings of each weed species tested. The percentages of seeds and seedlings ingested were 96.7% to 100% and 21.7% to 94.2%, respectively. Pheretima guillelmi showed greater ingestion of seeds than seedlings for each species and digested the seeds and seedlings of each weed species tested to varying extents. The percentages of seeds and seedlings digested were less than 15% irrespective of the weed species. Passage through the gut of P. guillelmi affected the survival of seeds and seedlings. The germination of large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.], green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.], goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.], Chinese sprangletop [Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees], Malabar sprangletop [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth], redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.], and ricefield flatsedge (Cyperus iria L.) seeds egested by P. guillelmi decreased by 46%, 49%, 47%, 25%, 38%, 26%, 32%, 13%, and 15%, respectively, compared with their respective controls. In contrast to seed ingestion, ingestion of seedlings by P. guillelmi was fatal to individuals of all weed species; no seedlings survived passage through the gut. Our results indicate that predation of weed seeds and seedlings by P. guillelmi probably depletes the soil weed seedbank and that the introduction of P. guillelmi into fields is a potential strategy for weed biocontrol in farmland.