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Compared with nitrogen and argon, helium is lighter and can better reduce the beam loss caused by angular scattering during beam transmission. The molecular dissociation cross-section in helium is high and stable at low energies, which makes helium the prevalent stripping gas in low-energy accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To study the stripping behavior of 14C ions in helium at low energies, the charge state distributions of carbon ion beams with −1, +1, +2, +3, and +4 charge states were measured at energies of 70–220 keV with a compact 14C-AMS at Guangxi Normal University (GXNU). The experimental data were used to analyze the stripping characteristics of C-He in the energy range of 70–220 keV, and new charge state yields and exchange cross-sections in C-He were obtained at energies of 70–220 keV.
A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (GXNU-AMS) developed for radiocarbon and tritium measurements was installed and commissioned at Guangxi Normal University in 2017. After several years of operational and methodological upgrades, its performance has been continuously improved and applied in multidisciplinary fields. Currently, the measurement sensitivity for radiocarbon and tritium is 14C/12C ∼ (3.14 ± 0.05) ×10–15 and 3H/1H ∼ (1.23 ± 0.17)×10–16, respectively, and the measurement accuracy is ∼0.6%, which can meet the measurement requirements in the nuclear, earth, environmental and life science fields. This study presents the performance characteristics of GXNU-AMS and several interesting application studies.
A new system for preparing 14C samples was established for a compact accelerator mass spectrometer (GXNU-AMS) at Guangxi Normal University. This sample preparation system consists of three units: a vacuum maintenance unit, a CO2 purification unit, and a CO2 reduction unit, all of which were made of quartz glass. A series of radiocarbon (14C) preparation experiments were conducted to verify the reliability of the system. The recovery rate of graphite obtained was more than 80%. The carbon content in the commercial toner and wood sample was linearly fitted to the CO2 pressure in the measurement unit of the system. The results showed a good linear relationship, indicating that the reliability of the sample preparation system. AMS measurements were conducted on a batch of standard, wood, and dead graphite samples prepared using this system. The results showed that the beam current of 12C- for each sample was more than 40 μA, the carbon contamination introduced during the sample preparation process was ∼ 2 × 10–15, and that the new sample preparation system is compact, low-contamination, and efficient and meets the GXNU-AMS requirements for 14C samples.
Many waterflooding oil fields, injecting water into an oil-bearing reservoir for pressure maintenance, are in their middle to late stages of development. To explore the geological conditions and improve oilfield recovery of the most important well group of the Hu 136 block, located on the border areas of three provinces (Henan, Shandong, and Hebei), Zhongyuan Oilfield, Sinopec, central China, a 14C cross-well tracer monitoring technology was developed and applied in monitoring the development status and recognize the heterogeneity of oil reservoirs. The tracer response in the production well was tracked, and the water drive speed, swept volume of the injection fluid were obtained. Finally, the reservoir heterogeneity characteristics, such as the dilution coefficient, porosity, permeability, and average pore-throat radius, were fitted according to the mathematical model of the heterogeneous multi-layer inter-well theory. The 14C-AMS technique developed in this work is expected to be a potential analytical method for evaluating underground reservoir characteristics and providing crucial scientific guidance for the mid to late oil field recovery process.
Small luminescent Y2O3:Eu3+ particles were prepared by a hydrothermal method first, and then, Y2O3:Eu3+/C3N4 nanocomposites were further prepared by a chemisorption method. The luminescent Y2O3:Eu3+/C3N4 nanocomposites are not only a promising down-conversion luminescent material, but also it could be used to improve the efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Especially, the morphology of Y2O3:Eu3+ has great influence on the performance of DSSCs. Compared with Y2O3:Eu3+ nanorods, the introduction of small Y2O3:Eu3+ particles into the cells is conducive to the improvement of cell efficiency. The efficiencies of TiO2-Y2O3:Eu3+–C3N4 composite cells were not only higher than those of pure TiO2 cells but also higher than those of TiO2-Y2O3:Eu3+ or TiO2-C3N4 composite cells, resulting in the enhancement of the average efficiency of the TiO2-Y2O3:Eu3+–C3N4 composite cell from 7.16% to 8.14%, with 14% improvement over the pure TiO2 cell. The enhancement of the efficiency can be attributed to the synergetic effect of small Y2O3:Eu3+ particles and C3N4.
In this paper, a response model of an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) with a pod-like propulsion device is established. To improve the robustness of motion control in heavy sea states, an integrated nonlinear feedback course-keeping controller is proposed. First, to establish a response model of a USV with pod-like propulsion, model parameters are obtained by the method of system identification, then an integrated nonlinear feedback control strategy is proposed. The essence of this method is to make the original error signal pass through a nonlinear function, and then the output of this function is used to replace the original error signal. Simulation results show that under ordinary sea states, nonlinear feedback can save up to 34.5% of energy used compared with standard feedback methods; under heavy sea states, this can rise to 40.8%. A set of field experiments were carried out with a USV with pod-like propulsion. Results show that under heavy sea states, the test USV can maintain the target course well, which proves the correctness of the model and the robustness of the proposed method.
MTiO3 (M = Ca, Ni, and Zn) nanocrystals were prepared via a facile ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis route followed by calcination in air. The structures and morphologies of nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that CaTiO3 and NiTiO3 are orthorhombic phase, while the ZnTiO3 is orthorhombic phase. The activity of the CaTiO3 nanocrystals for water splitting into H2 was obviously higher than those of the NiTiO3 and ZnTiO3 nanocrystals, which could be attributed to the more negative conduction band position of CaTiO3 than NiTiO3 and ZnTiO3. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller system-based surface areas of samples are 19.03, 21.13, and 4.17 m2/g for CaTiO3, NiTiO3, and ZnTiO3 nanocrystals, respectively. In addition, the activity of the CaTiO3 nanocrystals increased with increase in the sintering temperature of samples.
KLa2Ti3O9.5 and KLa2Ti3O9.5:Er3+ nanocrystals were successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal method and a subsequent calcination treatment. The band gap (Eg) of the KLa2Ti3O9.5 nanocrystals was calculated to be about 2.56 eV by means of the reflectance diffusion technique. Under 980-nm excitation, the KLa2Ti3O9.5:Er3+ nanocrystals emitted intense green (2H11/2/4S3/2 → 4I15/2) and red (4F9/2 → 4I15/2) upconversion (UC) luminescence. In comparison with pure KLa2Ti3O9.5, the KLa2Ti3O9.5:Er3+ nanocrystals exhibited a higher activity for water splitting into H2 under simulated solar light irradiation. We suggest that the enhancement of photocatalytic activity is related to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and UC luminescence of KLa2Ti3O9.5:Er3+.
Flowerlike hierarchical Bi2MoO6 and Bi2MoO6:Er3+ microspheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The crystalline size of microspheres decreases with increasing Er3+ concentration. The incorporation of Er3+ has no evident influence on the morphology of Bi2MoO6. The photocatalytic activity of microspheres was evaluated by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solution under simulated solar light. The best photocatalytic performance was observed when the Er3+ concentration was 0.5%. In addition to the aforementioned high photocatalytic activity, the Bi2MoO6:Er3+ microspheres can emit pure green upconversion (UC) luminescence (2H11/2/4S3/2 → 4I15/2) under 980 nm excitation. We suggest that the enhancement of photocatalytic activity of Bi2MoO6:Er3+(0.5%) is related to the UC luminescence of Er3+ ions. In addition, the BET surface areas of samples increased with increasing Er3+ concentration, which is also benefit for RhB adsorption.
The influence of surface segregation on the elastic properties of Pt-M (M = Ni, Co, or Fe) nanowires (NWs) are examined by comparing the predicted Young’s moduli of the segregated and non-segregated nanowires using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the computed stress-strain curves under tensile loading using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. The moduli of the segregated NWs were found to be higher than that of the non-segregated ones. It is believed that the surface segregation increases the number of Pt-M bonds across the outermost and second surface layers, and thus enhances the Young’s modulus of the segregated Pt-M nanowires. MD results confirm our DFT results and it is found that onset of plastic deformation could be altered by the surface segregation process, as well.
We have performed first-principles density functional theory calculations to investigate how subsurface 3d transition metals M (M = Ni, Co, Fe, Ti, or V) affect the energetics and mechanisms of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the outermost Pt mono-surface layer of Pt/M (111) surfaces. We found that the alteration of the ORR mechanism pathway can explain the activity enhancement for ORR on the Pt/M (111) surfaces.