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At the end of the Palaeozoic Era, most species on Earth disappeared completely and the global sedimentary environment and biology changed dramatically. The Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB) was studied in three sections of the middle Upper Yangtze Platform, SW China: Xingwen well and Zhijin and Shangsi sections. These sections are characterized by carbonate-platform, toe-of-slope and basin facies, respectively. Detailed analysis of 100 closely spaced thin-sections revealed a total of 24 microfacies and 11 microfacies associations based on the dominant carbonate grain size and the skeletal material (type and proportion). Six bioassemblages are documented for the first time, spanning c. 1 Ma across the boundary succession, including normal, resurrected and miniaturized Permian biota, and cyanobacteria-dominated, survival post-crisis and neonatal Triassic biota. The Xingwen well indicated sedimentary evolution from a rimmed carbonate platform to a homoclinal carbonate ramp, as well as a sharp fall in sea level just prior to the PTB in the study area. The Zhijin section revealed a slope setting, in which toe-of-slope and middle-ramp microfacies are identified. The Shangsi section showed a complete evolution of basin and outer-ramp microfacies and bioassemblages. Fossil evidence showed that the Permian biota (trilobites, gastropods and phylloid algae) occurred in the uppermost Changhsingian stage and was overlain by biomicrites with miniaturized ostracods (< 0.2 mm in size). This indicated that the major extinction horizon is located up to 14 cm below the PTB, which lies in the middle–lower segments of the miniaturized ostracod layer.
Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
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