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The Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model is a commonly used physics-based model in describing the hysteresis characteristics of ferromagnetic materials. However, citations and interpretation of this model in literature have been non-uniform. Solution methods for solving numerically this model has not been studied adequately. In this paper, through analyzing the mathematical properties of equations and the physical mechanism of energy conservation, we point out some unreasonable descriptions of this model and develop a relatively more accurate, modified J-A model together with its numerical solution method. Our method employs a fixed point method to compute anhysteretic magnetization. We obtain the susceptibility value of the anhysteretic magnetization analytically and apply the 4th order Runge-Kutta method to the solution of total magnetization. Computational errors are estimated and then precisions of the solving method in describing various materials are verified. At last, through analyzing the effects of the accelerating method, iterative error and step size on the computational errors, we optimize the numerical method to achieve the effects of high precision and short computing time. From analysis, we determine the range of best values of some key parameters for fast and accurate computation.
Mg2Ni1-xCux (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) and Mg2Ni1-yCoy (y = 0, 0.2, 0.4) were successfully synthesized via two steps: induction melting and then ball milling. The component and microstructure of the alloys were determined with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/XEDS). Mg2Ni phase was observed in all 5 alloys. When the amount of Cu was increased, it led to the formation of phase from Mg2Cu to Cu11Mg10Ni9. Co2Mg was detected in the Co-containing alloys. The hydrogen absorption/desorption properties were tested with p-C-T measurement apparatus, and the results showed that the gaseous storage properties of the alloys were improved by the addition of Cu or Co.
A novel ostraciiform swimming, vision-based autonomous robotic fish is developed in this paper. Its feasibility and capability are shown by implementing a dynamic target following task in a swimming pool. Inspired by boxfish that is highly stable and fairly maneuverable, the robotic fish is designed and constructed by locating multiple propulsors peripherally around a rigid body. Swimming locomotion of the robotic fish is achieved through harmonic oscillations of the tail and pectoral fins. The forces and moments acting on the fins and body are analyzed and the governing motion equations are derived. Through coordinating the movements of the propulsors, several typical swimming patters are empirical designed and realized. A digital camera is integrated in the robotic fish, and the visual information is processed with the embedded microcontroller. To treat the degradation of underwater image, a continuously adaptive mean shift (Camshift) algorithm is modified to keep visual lock on the moving target. A fuzzy logic controller is designed for motion regulation of a hybrid swimming pattern, which employs synchronized pectoral fins for thrust generation and tail fin for steering. A simple target following task is designed via an autonomous robotic fish swimming after a manually controlled robotic fish with fixed distance. The swimming performance of the robotic fish is tested and the effectiveness of the proposed target following method is verified experimentally.
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