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The purpose of the current study was to research the factors influencing thyroid volume (TVOL) in 6–12-year-old children and update the reference values. A cross-sectional study was carried out in iodine-sufficient areas of four provinces in China. Urine, edible salt and drinking water samples were collected from children. Children’s height, weight and TVOL were measured. Ridge regression was used to screen variables for solving the multicollinearity problem. Quantile regression was used to analyse the relationship between the quantiles of TVOL and other variables. In total, 5653 children aged 6–12 years were enrolled in this study, including 2838 boys and 2815 girls. There was no significant difference in TVOL between boys and girls (P > 0·05). Spearman correlation analysis showed that total TVOL was positively correlated with age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA) and BMI, and the correlation coefficients were 0·616, 0·663, 0·669, 0·685 and 0·479, respectively. Among them, the correlation between TVOL and BSA was the strongest. According to the ridge regression results, age and BSA influenced TVOL, and the ridge regression coefficients were 0·13 and 0·94, respectively. Quantile regression further showed that age and BSA had significant influences on the whole TVOL distribution (P < 0·001). Therefore, the TVOL of children aged 6–12 years in China was mainly influenced by age and BSA, and reference values for TVOL of different genders based on age and BSA were established.
This paper presents a seven-link dynamic walking model that is more close to human beings than other passivity-based dynamic walking models. We add hip actuation, upper body, flat feet, and ankle joints with torsional springs to the model. Walking sequence of flat-feet walkers has several substreams, which forms bipedal walking with dynamic series of phases. We investigate the effects of ankle stiffness on gait selection and evaluate different gaits in walking velocity, efficiency, and stability. Experimental results indicate that ankle stiffness plays different roles in different gaits and the gaits, which are more close to human walking with moderate speed, achieve better motion characteristics.
A novel ostraciiform swimming, vision-based autonomous robotic fish is developed in this paper. Its feasibility and capability are shown by implementing a dynamic target following task in a swimming pool. Inspired by boxfish that is highly stable and fairly maneuverable, the robotic fish is designed and constructed by locating multiple propulsors peripherally around a rigid body. Swimming locomotion of the robotic fish is achieved through harmonic oscillations of the tail and pectoral fins. The forces and moments acting on the fins and body are analyzed and the governing motion equations are derived. Through coordinating the movements of the propulsors, several typical swimming patters are empirical designed and realized. A digital camera is integrated in the robotic fish, and the visual information is processed with the embedded microcontroller. To treat the degradation of underwater image, a continuously adaptive mean shift (Camshift) algorithm is modified to keep visual lock on the moving target. A fuzzy logic controller is designed for motion regulation of a hybrid swimming pattern, which employs synchronized pectoral fins for thrust generation and tail fin for steering. A simple target following task is designed via an autonomous robotic fish swimming after a manually controlled robotic fish with fixed distance. The swimming performance of the robotic fish is tested and the effectiveness of the proposed target following method is verified experimentally.
We have studied the carrier transport in regio-regular polythiophene field effect transistors (FETs) by four-probe measurements of the steady-state channel conductance from room temperature to 4.2 K. At high gate voltage (constant total carrier density, n = 5×1012 cm−2) and at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the gate voltage and source-drain voltage combine to induce the insulator-to-metal transition. In the insulating regime, the carrier transport is well described by phonon assisted hopping in a disordered Fermi Glass (with Coulomb interactions between the hopping charge carrier and the charge left behind). At the highest gate voltages and at sufficiently high source-drain voltages, the data imply a zero-temperature transition from disordered insulator to metal.
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