To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) promotes occlusion of downstream microvessels, which leads to microvascular perfusion defects, and initiates cellular inflammation, which requires the sequential expression of leukocyte adhesion receptors on microvascular endothelial cells. Changes in microvascular integrity and permeability, loss of basal lamina integrity, simultaneous decreases in specific endothelial cell and astrocyte integrins and changes in astrocyte ultrastructure also occur during early ischemia. Endothelial cell leukocyte adhesion receptors respond to ischemia in a rapid and orderly way, to initiate the cellular inflammatory response. P-selectin appears on the endothelium by 2 hours of MCAO, followed by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by 4 hours and E-selectin between 7 and 24 hours after MCAO (during reperfusion). Also, integrin αVβ3 is rapidly expressed by microvascular myointimal smooth muscle cells within 2 hours of MCAO. Those findings are consistent with the view that both microvascular and neuron injury may occur much more rapidly than the time frame for the appearance of cellular inflammatory cells in the primate basal ganglia.
Cerebral capillaries consist of endothelial cells, basal lamina (a portion of the extracellular matrix (ECM)) and astrocyte end-feet. Anatomical and functional relationships support their consideration as unique ternary complexes. In the adult brain, the ECM is found as the basal lamina in microvessels and within the meninges, in addition to other sites. In non-capillary microvessels, individual smooth muscle cells are encased in the ECM, which is continuous with the basal lamina.