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Given the enormity of the field of personality assessment, it is beyond the scope of the present chapter to provide an exhaustive review of the many approaches to personality assessment in common use today. With entire books and peer-reviewed periodicals devoted to a variety of personality assessment instruments, a brief chapter such as this is necessarily limited in its coverage of the personality assessment domain. However, this chapter provides a comparison of the multidimensional personality assessment instruments constructed empirically using the empirical factor analytic methods advocated by Raymond B. Cattell and his colleagues (e.g., Cattell, 1973, 1978, 1983; Cattell & Kline, 1977; Hall, Lindzey & Campbell, 1998; cf., Boyle et al., 2016) with a variety of other multidimensional assessment instruments constructed using nonfactor analytic approaches including the construct-oriented methods advocated by Jackson (e.g., 1970, 1984, 1989, 1994, 2000).
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale has a long history of successful usage as the foremost psychometric instrument for the assessment of cognitive ability. Early versions of the instrument were concerned primarily with the prediction of school achievement and academic learning on the basis of an overall IQ score. The present fourth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Thorndike, Hagen & Sattler, 1986) is greatly advanced in design and construction over the previous Form L-M. It is, in this regard, both exhaustively comprehensive and concomitantly rather tedious and slow to administer, particularly when a detailed assessment is required. While the test authors claim that the full range of subtests takes only 60–90 minutes (no more than 13 of the 15 subtests can be given to any one individual and in practice, probably only six or seven may beadministered in any particular testing situation), the actual testing time may be significantly greater than this, depending on individual circumstances.
The present review suggests that gifted and talented individuals exhibit personality characteristics of self-sufficiency/independence, conscientiousness, emotional control and perseverance. However, the combination of high intellectual ability and heightened sensitivity may cause problems for such individuals, resulting in social withdrawal in some cases.
While the role of non-ability intrapersonal variables including personality traits and motivational dynamic factors has been well documented in numerous studies, the relationship of transient states to cognitive performance has been relatively neglected. Boyle (1983b, 1986) demonstrated that emotional states powerfully influence cognitive learning outcomes under conditions of stressful activation. However, under neutral, non-emotive conditions, it remained unclear what role if any was played by mood states in cognitive learning. The failure to employ change measures in these studies may have obscured the likely influence of emotions on cognitive performance in the neutral situation. This study re-examines the relationship of moods with cognitive learning performance using state-change scores rather than single-occasion mood-state scores as the basis for predicting cognitive learning outcomes.
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