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Data from an energetic tidal flow are used to investigate the appropriateness of the classical scaling of wall turbulence for very high Reynolds numbers and fully rough conditions. The boundary layer occupied the entire channel depth and the Reynolds numbers were several orders of magnitude larger than typically attained in the laboratory. Profiles of the mean velocity, turbulence quantities and spectra exhibit consistencies with the wall-similarity hypothesis and the attached-eddy model, as well as the universality of the near-wall turbulence structure for geophysical flows. The wall-normal velocity spectra and intensities near the free surface are also strongly attenuated at low wavenumbers, consistent with the constraints imposed by any boundary which may be approximated as a plane slip surface. The results can be used to inform the development of turbulence inflow models for assessing the dynamic loading on tidal turbines and the layout of tidal energy farms.
A revised application of Ostrom's (Ostrom, 2007) Social-Ecological System (SES) framework to Hardin's ‘tragedy of the commons’ (Hardin, G. (1968), Science, 162(3859): 1243–1248) demonstrates that its institutional structure is more complex than either Hardin or Ostrom had imagined. The ‘tragedy’ arises from several interacting resources and institutions. If the grass on the pasture was not subject to appropriation, the cattle were not privately owned, or property- and contract-enforcement institutions supporting market exchange were absent, then the ‘tragedy of the commons’ would not have arisen regardless of the open-access pasture. This paper highlights the utility of the SES framework and the care required to apply it precisely to specific social-ecological situations.
We assembled an international collection of strains from sporadic and epidemic human infection with Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C) for laboratory study. Cultural and physiological characteristics of the isolates were determined, including biotyping with the API 20 STREP test kit and susceptibility testing with penicillin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The strains were examined for bacteriocin production and sensitivity and typed with a specially developed group-C streptococcal bacteriophage system incorporating a panel of 14 phages. Results of these tests gave useful discrimination between many of the strains: differences were shown between each of the major outbreak strains, including those complicated by post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
Serious group C streptococcal infection may be caused by S. zooepidemicus and isolates should be identified to species level; the application of a typing scheme such as this may help to distinguish epidemiological patterns of infection.
This article pursues the question of whether William Paley's Natural Theology is an Anglican classic. I place Paley's natural theology project in its historical context of skepticism about Christianity's truth claims and in the context of Paley's ‘system’. His teleological argument is briefly explained and four challenges, past and present, to its thesis are considered. The question of what makes a work a classic is explored in terms of its enduring interest, especially in the light of the controversy concerning Intelligent Design Theory, and its enduring value. It is argued that because of its enduring interest and value Paley's Natural Theology may be judged a classic but not of a peculiarly Anglican kind.
The present study was based on data from 100 face-to-face interviews, supplemented by findings from 316 respondents in a national postal survey, and shows that UK Chinese respondents were family-orientated and self-reliant, having low expectations of public welfare. These features challenge the myth of welfare dependency of ethnic minorities. Also, compared with Chinese welfare practices based on strong moral values and duties towards other people, New Labour's welfare culture lacks a solid social and ethical base for nurturing the concepts of duty and self-reliance.
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