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According to the most recent cancer statistics, more than 870,000 new diagnosis of cancer are expected in the US female population in 2018, with the three most common cancers in women being breast, lung, and colorectal cancers .
Several improvements have been made in the early diagnosis and treatment of infant and adults cancer and these advances have resulted in greatly increased life expectancy and chances of survival. Nevertheless, some oncological treatments, although leading to cancer cure rates higher than 90%, have a detrimental effect in the reproductive potential of children and young women, resulting in a population at high-risk of developing premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and therefore infertility .
In order to prevent the risk of facing this outcome, fertility preservation options are offered to these patients in order to protect their fertility potential prior to gonadotoxic treatment. Among the available options, ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation is the only method suitable for prepubertal girls and adult women who require urgent treatment.
Patients with early cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB1 or less) are conventionally considered treated with a surgical approach while those with more advanced disease are treated by radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. Dargent's operation is the realization of a laparoscopic pelvic lymph-node dissection associated with a radical cervical amputation through a vaginal approach. Dargent's operation or radical trachelectomy enables preservation of fertility among women with early cervical cancer. The benefits of Dargent's operation are linked to the laparoscopic approach, which reduces the risk of adhesions on pelvis organs and the vaginal route that allows the preservation of uterine body and its optimal vascularization. Following the excellent results achieved by the Dargent's operation, several teams have proposed operating variants through laparotomy or laparoscopy. These modifications are subject to criticism because they are usually associated with the section of the uterine arteries and, thus, with a partial devascularization of the uterus.
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