To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Selected risk programming solutions (i.e., profit maximization, Target-MOTAD, and MOTAD) are tested in an economic environment outside the data set from which they were developed. Specifically, solutions are derived from either a longer 10-year (1965-74) or shorter 6-year estimation period (1969-74), and then, they are tested for consistent risk-income characteristics over a later 10-year period (1975-84). Risk solutions estimated from earlier periods perform well in the later test period in spite of different economic conditions between time periods. However, favorable performance may be related to the specific example used in this analysis. Further testing for other farm situations is needed before general conclusions can be reached.
Machinery costs are affected by inflation which, if not correctly considered, will bias cost estimates. Accurate estimates of machinery costs are essential in budgeting costs of crop production in farm policy programs, crop hedging decisions, and general cost of production research. Machinery decisions relating to replacement, size, and custom or leasing alternatives are also improved by realistic budgeting techniques.
The objective of this article is to examine appropriate adjustments for inflation in developing machinery costs through budgeting techniques. The authors attempt to demonstrate the adjustments necessary in both capital and traditional budgeting models to place cost estimates on a real basis. Capital budgeting is first compared with traditional budgeting. Next, by the use of a simple machinery example, the necessary adjustments to account for inflation are shown for a capital budgeting model that does not include income tax considerations. Similarly, the inflation adjustments are demonstrated for a traditional budgeting model that does not include income tax considerations. Finally, a capital budgeting model including income tax aspects is examined in reference to real and nominal after-tax cost estimates.
The soil erodibility factor (K) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation is currently considered a constant for all soils in the same type, regardless of production practice. To examine the effect of alternative production systems on the K-factor we compared pairs of alternatively and conventionally farmed fields on a Judson silt loam (Fine-silty, mixed, mesic Cumulic Hapludolls), a Yutan silty clay loam (Fine-silty, mixed, mesic Mollic Hapludalf), and a Wann fine sandy loam (Coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic Fluvaquentic Haplustolls). Soil cores were taken from the surface 10 cm and analyzed for organic matter, permeability, structure, and texture. These data were used to estimate K-factors from a nomograph. All soils in the study had a fine granular structure. Organic matter content and permeability were significantly higher for the alternatively managed field at every location, except for no difference in permeability on the Judson soil. However, the K-factor was significantly lower for the alternative system on the Judson soil. Of all the parameters, texture has the greatest influence in determining K-factors within the nomograph, with soils higher in silt being more erodible than soils higher in sand or clay. Thus, the influences of alternative production systems affected the Judson soil to a greater degree than other textures because of its higher inherent susceptibility to erosion. This study shows that alternative production systems affect the K-factor of some soil types and can reduce soil erodibility, and therefore should be considered when developing conservation plans.
Thirteen cropping systems were analyzed with respect to profitability and risk for east-central Nebraska. The systems were developed from 1) a four-year rotation containing a small grain, 2) two row crop rotations, 3) three continuous cropped alternatives, and 4) combinations of continuous cropped alternatives. Three systems were developed from the four-year rotation including two alternative treatments of inorganic chemicals as well as an organic alternative. Eight years of experimental yields, historical prices, and estimated costs were combined to estimate net returns for each of the thirteen systems. Risk was analyzed as net return variability using statistical characteristics of the net return series. The stability component of rotation risk was separated from the diversification component. We found rotations to have higher average net returns than continuously cropped systems. Different chemical treatments (including organic) had little impact on profitability. Rotations had lower return variability than most continuous crops. The organic treatment did not decrease variability of returns compared to other chemical systems.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.