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To assess individual variation in anxiety, stress disorder, depression, insomnia, burnout, and resilience in health care workers (HCWs), 12 and 18 months after the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic.
Prospective longitudinal study.
A total of 207 HCWs (74% female, 46% physicians, 44% nurses) answered; 50% scored over the cut-off for anxiety (GAD-7), 66% for PCL-C, 41% for depression (PHQ-9), 25% for ISI, and 15% started sleep inducers; 52% showed emotional exhaustion (EE), 68% detachment (DE), 39% professional efficacy (EF) at MBI; 27% completed the follow-up questionnaire 6 months later, showing a significant reduction in nearly all scores (GAD-7 median 11[5-15] vs 7[4-12] (P < 0.001); PCL-C 43[30-58] vs 37[24-50] (P < 0.05); PHQ-9 10[4-16] vs 6[3-12] (P < 0.001); ISI 10[4-15] vs 7[5-12](NS); MBI EE 25[16-35] vs 23 [15-31] (NS), DE 13[8-17] vs 12[8-17], EF 29[25-34] vs 30[25-34]. Living in a flat (OR 2.27 [1.10-4.81], high-intensity-of-care working (2.83 [1.15-7.16] increased risk of anxiety (GAD-7); age between 31-40 y (OR 2.8 [1.11-7.68], being a nurse (OR 3.56 [1.59-8.36] and high-intensity-of-care working (OR 8.43 [2.92-26.8] increased risk of pathological stress (PCL-C).
Nearly half of HCWs showed psychological distress, especially nurses, women, and the youngest. A mandatory job change, increasing intensity of care, working in a COVID-19 department, and being infected were negative factors; having a partner and living in a detached house were protective. Six months later, all the psychological domains showed individual improvement.
Adding short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) to antidepressants increases treatment efficacy, but it is unclear which patients benefit specifically. This study examined efficacy moderators of combined treatment (STPP + antidepressants) v. antidepressants for adults with depression.
For this systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017056029), we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase.com, and the Cochrane Library from inception to 1 January 2022. We included randomized clinical trials comparing combined treatment (antidepressants + individual outpatient STPP) v. antidepressants in the acute-phase treatment of depression in adults. Individual participant data were requested and analyzed combinedly using mixed-effects models (adding Cochrane risk of bias items as covariates) and an exploratory machine learning technique. The primary outcome was post-treatment depression symptom level.
Data were obtained for all seven trials identified (100%, n = 482, combined: n = 238, antidepressants: n = 244). Adding STPP to antidepressants was more efficacious for patients with high rather than low baseline depression levels [B = −0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.61 to −0.37, p < 0.0001] and for patients with a depressive episode duration of >2 years rather than <1 year (B = −0.68, 95% CI −1.31 to −0.05, p = 0.03) and than 1–2 years (B = −0.86, 95% CI −1.66 to −0.06, p = 0.04). Heterogeneity was low. Effects were replicated in analyses controlling for risk of bias.
To our knowledge, this is the first study that examines moderators across trials assessing the addition of STPP to antidepressants. These findings need validation but suggest that depression severity and episode duration are factors to consider when adding STPP to antidepressants and might contribute to personalizing treatment selection for depression.
Subthreshold hypomania during a major depressive episode challenges the bipolar-unipolar dichotomy. In our study we employed a cross-diagnostic cluster analysis - to identify distinct subgroups within a cohort of depressed patients.
A k-means cluster analysis— based on the domain scores of the Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR) questionnaire—was performed on a data set of 300 adults with either bipolar or unipolar depression. After identifying groups, between-clusters comparisons were conducted on MOODS-SR domains and factors and on a set of sociodemographic, clinical and psychometric variables.
Three clusters were identified: one with intermediate depressive and poor manic symptomatology (Mild), one with severe depressive and poor manic symptomatology (Moderate), and a third one with severe depressive and intermediate manic symptomatology (Mixed). Across the clusters, bipolar patients were significantly less represented in the Mild one, while the DSM-5 “Mixed features” specifier did not differentiate the groups. When compared to the other patients, those of Mixed cluster exhibited a stronger association with most of the illness-severity, quality of life, and outcomes measures considered. After performing pairwise comparisons significant differences between “Mixed” and “Moderate” clusters were restricted to: current and disease-onset age, psychotic ideation, suicidal attempts, hospitalization numbers, impulsivity levels and comorbidity for Cluster B personality disorder.
In the present study, a clustering approach based on a spectrum exploration of mood symptomatology led to the identification of three transdiagnostic groups of patients. Consistent with our hypothesis, the magnitude of subthreshold (hypo)manic symptoms was related to a greater clinical severity, regardless of the main categorical diagnosis.
Highlighting the relationship between obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorder (TD), two highly disabling, comorbid, and difficult-to-treat conditions, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) acknowledged a new “tic-related” specifier for OCD, ie, obsessive–compulsive tic-related disorder (OCTD). As patients with OCTD may frequently show poor treatment response, the aim of this multicenter study was to investigate rates and clinical correlates of response, remission, and treatment resistance in a large multicenter sample of OCD patients with versus without tics.
A sample of 398 patients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of OCD with and without comorbid TD was assessed from 10 different psychiatric departments across Italy. For the purpose of the study, treatment response profiles in the whole sample were analyzed comparing the rates of response, remission, and treatment-resistance as well as related clinical features. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify possible factors associated with treatment response.
The remission group was associated with later ages of onset of TD and OCD. Moreover, significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities, TD, and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts emerged in the treatment-resistant group, with larger degrees of perceived worsened quality of life and family involvement.
Although remission was associated with later ages of OCD and TD onset, specific clinical factors, such as early onset and presence of psychiatric comorbidities and concomitant TD, predicted a worse treatment response with a significant impairment in quality of life for both patients and their caregivers, suggesting a worse profile of treatment response for patients with OCTD.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorder (TD) represent highly disabling, chronic and often comorbid psychiatric conditions. While recent studies showed a high risk of suicide for patients with OCD, little is known about those patients with comorbid TD (OCTD). Aim of this study was to characterize suicidal behaviors among patients with OCD and OCTD.
Three hundred and thirteen outpatients with OCD (n = 157) and OCTD (n = 156) were recruited from nine different psychiatric Italian departments and assessed using an ad-hoc developed questionnaire investigating, among other domains, suicide attempt (SA) and ideation (SI). The sample was divided into four subgroups: OCD with SA (OCD-SA), OCD without SA (OCD-noSA), OCTD with SA (OCTD-SA), and OCTD without SA (OCTD-noSA).
No differences between groups were found in terms of SI, while SA rates were significantly higher in patients with OCTD compared to patients with OCD. OCTD-SA group showed a significant male prevalence and higher unemployment rates compared to OCD-SA and OCD-noSA sample. Both OCTD-groups showed an earlier age of psychiatric comorbidity onset (other than TD) compared to the OCD-SA sample. Moreover, patients with OCTD-SA showed higher rates of other psychiatric comorbidities and positive psychiatric family history compared to the OCD-SA group and to the OCD-noSA groups. OCTD-SA and OCD-SA samples showed higher rates of antipsychotics therapies and treatment resistance compared to OCD-noSA groups.
Patients with OCTD vs with OCD showed a significantly higher rate of SA with no differences in SI. In particular, OCTD-SA group showed different unfavorable epidemiological and clinical features which need to be confirmed in future prospective studies.
we aimed to compare socio-demographic and clinical differences between patients with versus without current RC in order to detect clinical factors that may favor early diagnosis and personalized treatment.
A total of 1675 patients (males: n = 714 and females: n = 961; bipolar 1: n = 1042 and bipolar 2: n = 633) from different psychiatric clinics were grouped and compared according to the current presence of RC in terms of socio-demographic and clinical variables. Chi-squared tests for qualitative variables and Student’s t tests for quantitative variables were executed for group comparison, and multivariable logistic regressions were performed, considering the current presence of RC as dependent variable, and socio-demographic/clinical factors as independent variables.
Female gender (male versus female: OR = 0.64, p = 0.04), unidentifiable prevalent polarity (versus depressive polarity: OR = 1.76, p = 0.02; versus manic polarity: OR: 2.86, p < 0.01) and hospitalization in the last year (no versus yes: OR = 0.63, p = 0.02) were found to be associated with RC in the final multivariable regression analysis.
RC in BD seems to be more prevalent in female gender and associated with some unfavorable clinical features, such as an increased risk of hospitalization. These aspects should be taken into account in the management and monitoring of RC versus non-RC patients.
To assess the psychological impact of a mass casualty incident (MCI) in a subset of personnel in a level I hospital.
Emergency department staff responded to an MCI in June 2017 in Turin, Italy by an unexpected sudden surge of casualties following a stampede (mass escape). Participants completed the Psychological Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment Responder Self-Triage System (PsySTART-R), which classified the potential risk of psychological distress in “no risk” versus “at risk” categorization and identified a range of impacts aggregated for the population of medical responders. Participants were administered a questionnaire on the perceived effectiveness of management of the MCI. Two months later, the participants were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5).
The majority of the responders were classified as “no risk” by the PsySTART-R; no significant differences on HADS, K6, and PCL-5 were found in the participants grouped by the PsySTART-R categories. The personnel acquainted to work in emergency contexts (emergency department and intensive care unit) scored significantly lower in the HADS than the personnel usually working in other wards. The number of positive PsySTART-R criteria correlated with the HADS depression score.
Most of the adverse psychological implications of the MCI were well handled and averted by the responders. A possible explanation could be related to factors such as the clinical condition of the victims (most were not severely injured, no fatalities), the small number of casualties (87) brought to the hospital, the event not being considered life-threatening, and its brief duration, among others. Responders had mainly to cope with a sudden surge in casualties and with organizational issues.
The possible presence of gender-related differences in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This multicenter study aimed to investigate gender differences in BD in the largest Italian database collected to date, on behalf of the Italian Chapter of the International Society of Bipolar Disorders.
A total of 1674 patients (males: n = 714; females: n = 960) from different psychiatric departments were compared according to gender on demographic/clinical variables. Owing to the large number of variables statistically related to the dependent variable (gender) at the univariate analyses, preliminary multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. A final multivariable logistic regression was then performed, considering gender as the dependent variable and statistically significant demographic/clinical characteristics as independent variables.
The results of the final multivariable logistic regression analysis with previous statistically significant demographic and clinical variables were the following: female gender was less frequently associated with employment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.7, P < 0.01), lifetime single marital status (OR = 0.45, P < 0.01), and substance abuse in the last year (OR = 0.35, P < 0.01), whereas it was more frequently associated with a major number of lifetime major depressive episodes (OR = 1.78, P < 0.01) and psychiatric visits in the last year (OR = 1.38, P = 0.01).
Few significant differences were found between genders in BD, particularly for those clinical features that are associated with poor prognosis (substance abuse for males and number of depressive episodes for females). Transcultural studies are needed to identify cultural versus illness-related variables possibly explaining the different clinical presentation of BD in relation to gender.
The duration of untreated illness (DUI) is a potentially modifiable parameter associated with worst prognosis in several psychiatric disorders, but poorly investigated in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Our aims were to estimate the mean DUI in a large sample of individuals with OCD and its impact on response to the first ever adequate SRI treatment.
We retrospectively examined records of 251 patients with OCD (SCID-I, DSM-IV) who referred to our Department and were prospectively and naturalistically treated according to International Guidelines. The DUI was defined as the interval between age at onset and age at which patients received their first adequate pharmacological treatment. Response rates were compared in subjects with brief (≤24 months) versus long DUI. Logistic regression models predicting response and 12-week Y-BOCS score were run with DUI (among others) as independent variable.
The mean DUI was 106.19 ± 118.14 months, with a mean interval between onset of the disorder and when patients sought professional help of 82.27 ± 112.30 months. Response rates were significantly reduced in subjects with a long DUI, using both the cut-off of 24 months and the median value of 60 months. Regression analyses confirmed that a long (>24 months) DUI predicts poorer response and higher Y-BOCS scores at 12 weeks.
Our results, although preliminary, seem to suggest that a longer duration of untreated illness in OCD is associated with poorer outcome in terms of response to SRI treatments. It is imperative to do all the possible to shorten the DUI, both by improving access to mental health services, improving the ability of primary care physicians and mental health professionals to recognize OCD, and disseminate best-practice prescription guidelines.
Although many investigations into the onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest the occurrence of potential life events as triggering factors, such an association has not been well studied to date. The purpose of the present paper is to review the literature on OCD onset in order to determine whether OCD is triggered by recent life events, what specific events may serve as triggers, and the clinical and research implications of these factors. Overall, the available studies do not consistently support the theory that OCD is triggered by specific antecedent life events. However, there is a body of evidence to support the theory that the specific life events of pregnancy and birth of a child can trigger OCD. This apparent association has led to the investigation of certain neurohormonal factors, including changes in estrogen or oxytocin levels, that may be of etiopathogenetic significance in OCD. Confirming such associations may allow clinicians to provide more targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.
This article focuses on the clinical onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), specifically addressing the of onset, gradual and acute onset, and whether there are some types of premorbid conditions or a prodromal phase that predispose individuals to the onset of OCD. Clinical and epidemiological studies have come to different conclusions regarding age at onset as well as regarding differences between the sexes. Data gleaned from research to date have demonstrated a relationship between OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), although OCPD does not appear to be the more prevalent personality disorder among patients with OCD. Preliminary research has suggested that Axis I disorders may predispose individuals to OCD onset; however, the significance of this relationship remains to be clarified. Evidence of the association between OCD and subthreshold obsessive-compulsive syndrome suggests that these disorders lie on a continuum of severity, with some cases developing OCD while others do not.
Objective – The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of triggering life-events for the onset of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder in women (OCD). Design – Clinical controlled study. Setting – Service for depressive and anxiety disorders; Department of Neuroscience, Psichiatric Unit, University of Turin. Methods – The study compares twenthy-nine women with OCD (DSM-IV criteria) with twenthy–nine healthy control women matched for demographic features and with twenthy-ni– ne women with Bulimia Nervosa (DSM-IV criteria) matched for age, age at onset, education and marital status. All patients were assessed with the Clinical Structured Interview for DSMIII-R (SCID) and with the Interview for Recent Life Event by Paykel. Moreover, OCD patients were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and bulimic patients with the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). Results – The study demonstrates that the only specific life event that is significantly associated with the onset of OCD is “having a new born child” No significant differences in frequency and severity of stressing life events were found in the three groups. Conclusions – The results confirms the findings of our previous study: post partum is the only risk factor for the onset of OCD in female population, compared to healthy control. Furthermore, this research points-out the importance and the specificity of this association showing that post partum is not a risk factor in all psychiatric disorders.
Objective – To evaluate potential differences in socio-demographic and clinical characteristics (obsessivecompulsive symptomatology, axis I and II comorbidity) between OCD adults with an early age at onset (≤18 years) and later onset, (≤18 yrs). Design – Clinical controlled study. Setting – Anxiety and Mood Disorders Unit, Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin. Methods – We included 149 subjects with a principal diagnosis of OCD (DSM-IV) and a Y-BOCS total score ≤ 16 All patients underwent a semistructured clinical interview aimed at investigating sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features of the disorder. Lifetime Axis I comorbidity, according to DSM-IV criteria, was investigated with a structured interview following Othmer & Othmer guidelines (1994; 1999). Personality disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II). Results – 39 patients referred age at onset of OCD before 18 years (earlyonset group) and 110 patients at 18 years or later (later-onset group). Significant differences were found between the two groups: early-onset subjects are characterized by a preponderance of males, a chronic course of illness and a strong association with Schizotypal Personality Disorder. Discussion – When subtyping OCD according to age at onset we found significant differences which suggest a possible heterogeneity of the disorder. Our results seem to confirm that early-onset OCD may represent a more severe subgroup, with clinical characteristics such as the chronic course and the high association with Schizotypal PD which are significant in order to apply specific therapeutic strategies.
Nell'ultimo decennio la qualita della vita ha acquisito una sempre maggiore rilevanza come misura di esito sociale e clinico (Katschnig, 1997) dei disturbi mentali. Vi e un ampio consenso sul fatto che il costrutto della qualita della vita è multidimensionale e comprende la percezione che il paziente ha delle relazioni sociali, della propria salute fisica, della capacità di svolgere le attivita quotidiane domestiche e lavorative e del proprio benessere in generale (Patrick & Erickson, 1988). Mentre le misure di funzionamento si propongono di quantificare la compromissione in modo oggettivo, le misure della qualita della vita valutano la capacita del soggetto di trarre soddisfazione e piacere da varie attivita e richiedono una valutazione soggettiva. La definizione di qualita della vita del Quality of Life Group dell'Organizzazione