To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Strawberries contain many antioxidant phytochemicals such as vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic compounds including anthocyanins (ACN). In the present study, antioxidant composition of fresh strawberries (FS) and stored strawberries (SS) and the bioavailability of the main strawberry bioactive compounds were determined in human subjects. Thirteen healthy volunteers consumed 300 g of FS and SS on two separate occasions. Blood, before and at different time points from meal consumption, as well as 24 h urine, was collected, and parent compounds and metabolites of the different compounds were determined by HPLC or LC/MS/MS. A reduction in α-carotene plasma concentrations v. baseline values was recorded after the consumption of FS, although the amount of this carotenoid was higher in the SS. On the contrary, a significant increase of plasma vitamin C after 2, 3 and 5 h (P < 0·05) of FS and SS consumption was recorded. No quercetin and ACN were found in plasma, while coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HBA, 56 and 54 % of pelargonidin-3-glucoside (Pel-glc) ingested with FS and SS, respectively) and protocatechuic acid (59 and 34 % of cyanidin-3-glucoside ingested with FS and SS, respectively) over 8 h from strawberry consumption were retrieved in the plasma. Pelargonidin glucuronide, pelargonidin glucoside and pelargonidin aglycone peaked in urine within 2 h of strawberry consumption, and the 24 h amount excreted was always approximately 0·9 % of the Pel-glc dose ingested. The data indicated that the content of phytochemicals in strawberries may influence the bioavailability of individual compounds. Furthermore, in the present study, the metabolism of Pel-glc was elucidated, and, for the first time, 4HBA was suggested to be a major human metabolite of Pel-glc.
Taste acuity declines with age and may be dependent upon Zn status. The aim of the present double-blind, randomised controlled intervention trial has been to determine taste acuity in response to Zn supplementation (placebo, or 15 or 30 mg Zn/d). Healthy older European adults aged 70–87 years were recruited within Italy (Rome) (n 108) and France (Grenoble) (n 91) to the European Commission-funded Zenith project. A signal detection theory approach was adopted for taste assessment. The data were converted to R indices and analysed by repeated-measures ANOVA controlling for baseline taste acuity as well as serum and erythrocyte Zn. Serum Zn increased post-intervention, indicating compliance with the intervention. Results differed across geographical region. Salt taste acuity was greater in response to Zn (30 mg) than placebo post-intervention among those recruited in Grenoble. There was no apparent change in acuity for sweet, sour or bitter taste in response to Zn. Supplemented Zn may have potential to enhance salt taste acuity in those over the age of 70 years. Further research is required to determine if enhanced salt taste acuity is reflected in the eating experiences of older individuals.
Given the key role of Zn in many physiological functions, optimal Zn status could be a predictive parameter of successful ageing. However, the benefit of Zn supplementation is still a matter of debate since Zn supplementation has been reported to be associated with the alteration of Cu status and lipid metabolism. As part of the Zenith Project, the present study aimed to investigate, in free-living healthy European middle-aged and older subjects, the effect of Zn supplementation on the biochemical status of Zn, Fe and Cu and on lipid profile. Volunteers aged 55–70 (n 188) and 70–85 (n 199) years old participated in a double-blinded, randomised study and received a daily placebo, or Zn as 15 or 30 mg for 6 months. Zn supplementation did not significantly modify erythrocyte Zn levels or erythrocyte Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activity. But Zn supplementation at 15 or 30 mg/d for 6 months increased significantly serum Zn levels and Zn urinary excretion with no major adverse effects on Fe and Cu status or on lipid metabolism. However, Zn supplementation at 30 mg/d showed some age- and sex-dependent alterations in Fe status or lipid profile. Therefore, with respect to the key role of an optimal Zn status in successful ageing, Zn supplementation at 15 mg/d, when necessary, could be safely proposed regarding lipids and the risk of interaction with Fe and Cu.
Zn has been shown to possess antioxidant properties in vitro and in vitro. As inadequate dietary Zn intake has been reported in these populations, Zn supplementation may protect against oxidative stress and thereby limit the progression of degenerative diseases in such populations. We conducted the present study to evaluate the long-term supplementation effects of two moderate doses of Zn on in vitro Cu-induced LDL oxidation in French men and women.Three groups of sixteen healthy subjects aged 55–70 years from each sex participated in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each group received for six months either 0, 15 or 30mg supplemental Zn per d. At the beginning and at the end of the supplementation periods, dietary intakes of Zn, Cu, Fe and vitamin E were estimated using 4d food-intake records (including the weekend) and the GENI program. Zn, Cu, Fe and vitamin E statuswere also determined. In vitro LDL oxidizability (basal conjugated diene level, maximal conjugated diene formation and lag time) and lipid parameters were also determined. Dietary intakes of Zn, Cu, Fe and vitamin E were adequate in this population. Zn supplementation significantly increased serum Zn levels but did not significantly modify Cu, Fe or vitamin E status. However, Zn supplementation had no effect on in vitro LDL oxidation parameters, nor were there any sex-related differences in in vitro LDL oxidizability. The present study showed that long-term Zn supplementation of healthy subjects aged 55–70 years had no effect on in vitro Cu-induced LDL oxidation under the study conditions.
The present study investigated whether storage under modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) affected the antioxidant properties of fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Eleven healthy volunteers (six men, five women) consumed 250 g fresh lettuce, and blood was sampled before (0 h) and 2, 3 and 6 h after consumption. The protocol was repeated 3 d later with the same lettuce stored at 5°C under MAP conditions (O2–N2 (5:95, v/v)). Results showed that after ingestion of fresh lettuce, plasma total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), measured as area under the curve, was significantly higher (1·3 (SEM 0·3) MMOL/L PER 6 H; P<0·05) THAN THE VALUE OBTAINED WITH MAP-STORED LETTUCE (0·1 (sem 0·2) mmol/l per 6 h). Plasma TRAP, quercetin and p-coumaric acid were significantly different from baseline values (P≤0·05) 2 and 3 h after fresh lettuce ingestion. Caffeic acid increased significantly at 3 h (P<0·05). Plasma β-carotene levels increased significantly at 6 h (P<0·05). Vitamin C concentrations (mg/l) rose from 10·9 (sem 2·0) to 12·7 (sem 3·0) (P<0·001), 12·7 (sem 2·0) (P<0·01) and 12·9 (sem 3·0) (P<0·05) at 0, 2, 3 and 6 h respectively. No changes were observed after ingestion of MAP-stored lettuce for all the measured markers. Our present results showed that ingestion of MAP-stored lettuce does not modify plasma redox status in healthy subjects. Further research is needed to develop post-harvesting techniques able to preserve the bioactive molecule content of plant food.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.