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The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the relationships between sleep and circadian phasing alterations and neurodegenerative/neuroprogressive processes in mood disorder. We carried out a systematic review, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase electronic databases for literature related to mood disorders, sleep disturbances, and neurodegenerative/neuroprogressive processes in relation to (1) neuroinflammation, (2) activation of the stress system, (3) oxidative stress, (4) accumulation of neurotoxic proteins, and (5) neuroprotection deficit. Seventy articles were collectively selected and analyzed. Experimental and clinical studies revealed that insomnia, conditions of sleep loss, and altered circadian sleep may favor neurodegeneration and neuroprogression in mood disorders. These sleep disturbances may induce a state of chronic inflammation by enhancing neuroinflammation, both directly and indirectly, via microglia and astrocytes activation. They may act as neurobiological stressors that by over-activating the stress system may negatively influence neural plasticity causing neuronal damage. In addition, sleep disturbances may favor the accumulation of neurotoxic proteins, favor oxidative stress, and a deficit in neuroprotection hence contributing to neurodegeneration and neuroprogression. Targeting sleep disturbances in the clinical practice may hold a neuroprotective value for mood disorders.
Psychiatric disorders are very common in patients affected by Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, comorbidity with Bipolar Spectrum disorders is understudied. The aim of this study is to explore the clinical correlates of PD associated with Bipolar Spectrum disorders.
One hundred PD patients were screened for psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive profile, motor, and non-motor symptoms. The sample was divided into three groups: PD-patients with Bipolar Spectrum disorders (bipolar disorder type I, type II, and spontaneous or induced hypomania; N = 32), PD-patients with others psychiatric comorbidities (N = 39), PD-patients without psychiatric comorbidities (N = 29). Clinical features were compared among the groups using analysis of variance and chi-square test. A logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between Bipolar Spectrum disorders and early onset of PD (≤50 years) controlling for lifetime antipsychotic use.
In comparison with PD patients with and without other psychiatric comorbidity, subjects affected by Bipolar Spectrum disorders were younger, showed more frequently an early onset PD, reported more involuntary movements and a higher rate of impulse control disorders and compulsive behaviors. No differences were observed in indexes of exposure to dopamine agonist treatments. The early onset of PD was predicted by Bipolar Spectrum comorbidity, independently from lifetime antipsychotic use.
Bipolar Spectrum disorders are common in early onset PD. The presence of bipolar comorbidity could identify a particular subtype of PD, showing higher rates of neurological and psychiatric complications and deserving further investigation.
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is currently classified as a somatoform disorder in DSM-IV, but has been long noted to have some important similarities with obsessive—compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, BDD and OCD have been often reported to be comorbid with each other. In the present study, we compared demographic characteristics, clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with OCD, BDD or comorbid BDD—OCD (34 subjects with BDD, 79 with OCD and 24 with BDD—OCD). We also compared the pattern of body dysmorphic concerns and associated behaviors in BDD patients with or without OCD comorbidity. In our sample, BDD and OCD groups showed similar sex ratio. Both groups with BDD and BDD—OCD were significantly younger, and experienced the onset of their disorder at a significantly younger age than subjects with OCD. The two BDD groups were also less likely to be married, and more likely to be unemployed and to have achieved lower level degree, than OCD subjects even when controlling for age. The three groups were significantly different in the presence of comorbid bulimia, alcohol-related and substance-use disorders, BDD—OCD patients showing the highest rate and OCD the lowest. BDD—OCD reported more comorbid bipolar II disorder and social phobia than in the other two groups, while generalized anxiety disorder was observed more frequently in OCD patients. Patients with BDD and BDD—OCD were similar as regards the presence of repetitive BDD-related behaviors, such as mirror-checking or camouflaging. Both groups also did show a similar pattern of distribution as regards the localization of the supposed physical defects in specific areas of the body. The only significant difference concerned the localization in the face, that was more frequent in the BDD group. Our results do not contradict the proposed possible conceptualization of BDD as an OCD spectrum disorder. However, BDD does not appear to be a simple clinical variant of OCD and it seems to be also related to social phobia, mood, eating and impulse control disorders. The co-presence of BDD and OCD features appears to possibly individuate a particularly severe form of the syndrome, with a greater load of psychopathology and functional impairment and a more frequent occurrence of other comorbid mental disorders.
It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates.
The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates.
Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation.
There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged.
Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate.
Individuals suffering from drug addiction may also manifest features of bipolar spectrum disorders. Hyperthymic and cyclothymic temperaments may render individuals vulnerable to later development of substance abuse. Bipolar disorders themselves may be altered or precipitated by substance use, most notably by stimulants (amphetamines), alcohol, and cannabinoids.The clinical usefulness of mood stabilizers, particularly antiepileptics, has been established as safe and effective in substance abusers with and without comorbid mood disorders. Most studies on this issue have been of short duration and focused on the resolution of a currently manifest period of illness. Few studies have been conducted on the usefulness of these drugs on the long-term longitudinal course of these diseases, such as frequently encountered recurrent relapses into states of agitation, impulsivity, and/or dissatisfaction. As opposed to the clinical experience with traditional antidepressants and neuroleptics, antiepileptics do not induce counter-polar states (depressed patients abruptly turning manic or hypomanic; nor patients currently hypomanic or manic turning abruptly depressed). Many clinicians consider antiepileptic mood stabilizers to be the preferred category of medications for the treatment of such patients. Valproate appears to be a potentially fruitful medication to study in these dual diagnosis patients due to preliminary evidence demonstrating its anticraving efficacy.
The neuropsychological performance of 19 unmedicated patients with panic disorder (PD) was compared with 15 age- and education-matched control subjects. The test results indicate a selective pattern of neuropsychological dysfunctions in patients with PD, suggestive of an involvement of the right frontal and temporoparietal brain areas.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with early onset in childhood. ASDs should be considered lifelong clinical entities, although there is a certain variability in developmental trajectories, and therefore should be considered of great interest also for adulthood psychiatrists. A few studies have been carried out to explore the clinical picture and course development of these disorders during adulthood, or their relationship with other mental disorders. Indeed, ASDs often share overlapping features with other disorders, such as schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive, mood, and personality disorders, and as a result misdiagnoses often occur. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature on ASDs in adulthood with a specific focus on the clinical picture, course, and psychiatric comorbidity. It is proposed that a careful diagnostic screening for ASDs in adults would contribute to clarifying the relationship with comorbid psychiatric disorders, while improving the possibility of treatment and outcome of such conditions.
Aims — To assess in a national sample the ability of GPs to detect psychiatric disorders using a clinical vs. a standardized interview and to characterize the patients that were falsely diagnosed with an anxiety or affective disorder. Methods — This is a national, cross—sectional, epidemiological survey, carried out by GPs on a random sample of their patients. The GPs were randomly divided into two groups. Apart from the routine clinical interview, the experimental group (group A) had to administer the Mini—International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results — Data was collected by 143 GPs. 17.2% of all patients had a clinical diagnosis of an affective disorder, and 25.4% a clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder. In group A, the number of clinical diagnoses was about twice that of MINI diagnoses for affective disorders and one and a half times that for anxiety disorders. The majority of clinical diagnoses were represented by MINI subsyndromal cases (52.3%). Females showed a higher OR of being over—detected by GPs with anxiety disorders or of not being diagnosed with an affective disorder. Being divorced/separated/widowed increased the OR of over—detection of affective and anxiety disorders. The OR of over—detection of an affective or an anxiety disorder was higher for individuals with a moderate to poor quality of life. Conclusions — In the primary care a gap exists between clinical and standardized interviews in the detection of affective and anxiety disorders. Some experiential and social factors can increase this tendency. The use of a psycho.
Declaration of Interest: GlaxoSmithKline provided unrestricted economic and organizational support to the study. No further declarations on other form of financing or any other involvement that might be considered a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article.
This chapter reviews the empirical literature on different definitions of mixed state (MS) focusing on their clinical validity. A large literature is available indicating that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edn. (DSM-IV) threshold for syndromal depression during mania is too restrictive, and suggesting that few depressive symptoms would suffice in validating the clinical diagnosis of mixed mania. Depressive-MS patients can be distinguished from non-mixed bipolar depressives by the fact that they have fewer episodes of longer duration, and frequently begin their illness with a mixed episode. Among the (hypo) manic symptoms reported in depressive MS, flight of ideas, racing thoughts, and distractibility belong to the same dimension of psychic excitement. Affective instability, fluctuation, lability, irritability, and diurnal variation emerge as the core phenomenologic features of mixed bipolar states; perplexity, psychotic experiences, and grossly disorganized behavior seem to arise from this protracted instability.
Mania with chronic course has been overlooked in the recent literature. Our aim was clinically to characterise and validate this form of mania.
We evaluated 155 people with DSM–III–R mania and assessed their family history, temperament, symptomatology and course. We used a semi-structured interview for mood disorders, as well as the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms.
Twenty (13%) had a chronic course arising from a background of hyperthymic temperament and recurrent mania, with a deteriorative pattern. Clinically, they were characterised by a significantly high rate of almost constant euphoria, grandiose delusions and related delusions, but had relatively low rates of sleep disturbance, psychomotor agitation and hypersexuality.
Even with current therapies a significant number of people with bipolar disorders have a deteriorative outcome associated with the gradual disappearance of acute mania with an increase in mregalomanic delusions, alienation from loved ones and decreased likelihood of medical and psychiatric care.
Systematic and detailed psychopathological examination of 400 consecutive primary major depressives failed to confirm common clinical stereotypes which ascribe greater somatisation, hypochondriasis, agitation, psychotic tendencies, and chronicity to old age. Those above 65 were more likely to suffer from single episodes of depression that were often precipitated, whereas subjects whose illness began earlier were more likely to express depression as part of a recurrent unipolar or bipolar disorder, with higher rates of affective temperamental pathology and familial affective illness. The acute clinical picture was relatively uniform in older and younger depressives and, taken together with the other findings, tends to favour a spectrum model of primary mood disorders.
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