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One in six adolescents suffers from mental health problems. Despite the presence of general information on Italian adolescents' mental health, researches conducted with standardized assessment tools are scarce in the literature. We evaluated the prevalence of self-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a group of Italian adolescents and examined their relation to socio-demographical variables.
This population-based sampling survey was conducted on high school students aged 14–18 from urban areas of Rome and Latina. Participants completed Youth Self-Report (YSR) and a socio-demographic schedule to collect information on age, gender, type of school attended, socio-economic status, urbanicity.
Final sample consisted of 1400 adolescents (38.61% male, mean age 16 years, s.d. 1.42). Prevalence of Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Total Problems was 29.55%, 18.34% and 24.13%. In our multivariable model, Internalizing Symptoms were not explained by sociodemographic variables while Externalizing Symptoms were explained by Male Gender [OR = 1.53 (1.14–2.06)], older age [OR = 2.06 (1.52–2.79)] and attending a Technical and Professional Institute [OR = 2.15 (1.53–3.02)], with an adjusted R2 = 4.32%. Total Problems were explained by School Type [Technical and Professional Institutes and Art and Humanities v. Grammar and Science School; OR respectively 1.93 (1.40–2.67) and 1.64 (1.08–2.47)], adjusted R2 = 1.94.
The study provides, for the first time, evidence of a great prevalence of self-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a large sample of Italian adolescents, highlighting the role of different socio-demographic variables as risk factors for externalizing behaviors. Our results emphasize the urgent need for implementing prevention programs on mental health in adolescence.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
A new Particle Vortex Method, called Diffused Vortex Hydrodynamics (DVH), is presented in this paper. The DVH is a meshless method characterized by the use of a regular distribution of points close to a solid surface to perform the vorticity diffusion process in the boundary layer regions. This redistribution avoids excessive clustering or rarefaction of the vortex particles providing robustness and high accuracy to the method. The generation of the regular distribution of points is performed through a packing algorithm which is embedded in the solver. The packing algorithm collocates points regularly around body of arbitrary shape allowing an exact enforcement on the solid surfaces of the no-slip boundary condition. The present method is tested and validated on different problems of increasing complexities up to flows with Reynolds number equal to 100,000 (without using any subgrid-scale turbulence model).
Using a combination of x-ray diffraction, volumetric adsorption and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) the adsorption properties of methane within the channels of L-Isoleucyl-L-Valine (IV) and L-Valyl-L-Alanine (VA) dipeptides have been investigated. These biomaterials have quasi one-dimensional channels of tunable diameters in the range of 3-6 Å and offer possibilities for selective adsorption, as well as, water and gas transport properties. High-resolution volumetric methane adsorption measurements performed near 100K for IV find that this biomaterial exhibits an adsorption capacity of ∼100 m2/g. High-resolution Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements were performed at the Spallation Neutron Source using the BASIS spectrometer with ∼ 3.5 μeV resolution. The data clearly indicate that at least two spectral features at energy transfers near 100 and 200 μeV are present, which suggests a lowering of the hindering potential for methane reorientation primarily about the three-fold axis within the IV channels. Such features play a key role in understanding details concerning the potential energy surface. These thermodynamic and INS studies suggest that the flexibility and dynamical motion within the dipeptide channels may play a significant role in the adsorption properties.
Lake Titicaca is the largest freshwater lake in South America and one of the highest and oldest of the world's large lakes, but very little of its ecology is known. We report results from a study on the spatial variation of decomposition rate of Schoenoplectus tatora in Inner Puno Bay affected by direct wastewater discharges. The aims of the research were: (1) to evaluate the effect of benthos exclusion and the influence of other environmental factors on decomposition and (2) to map the decomposition rate in order to describe the spatial heterogeneity in the water body. We carried out the study at 21 sampling points using both fine-meshed and coarse-meshed litterbags to exclude and to allow detritivore action, respectively. Decomposition was on the average faster in the former than in the latter treatment. However, the difference decreased with increasing detritivore abundance, and reversed in the most densely populated waters of the bay. Coupled spatial dependence of the decomposition rate and temperature was observed. Both variables were related with the distance from the wastewater discharges, suggesting that thermal pollution constrains the decomposition rate within the inner bay. Detritivores did not change the general trend imposed by temperature, but their presence increased the spatial heterogeneity of the process.
A practical atom specific surface magnetometry can be based on the measure of magnetic dichroism in the angular distribution of core photoelectrons using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The magnetic dichroism effect on the photoemission intensity of 3p core levels of the ferromagnetic transition elements is as large as 46% in the case of Fe(100). The most efficient scheme for measuring the magnetic dichroism in photoemission requires two mirror experiments in chiral geometry, i.e. only two times more experiments than standard core level photoemission for surface chemical analysis. We describe the dichroism magnetometry and show examples for Fe, Co, Ni and Cr surfaces and interfaces, including the measurement of the temperature dependence of the Fe(100) surface magnetization and of the effect of S-segregation on the surface magnetic moment of iron.
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