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Personality disorders are prevalent in 6–10% of the population, but their risk for cause-specific mortality is unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the association between personality disorders diagnosed in late adolescence and all-cause as well as cause-specific (cardiovascular-related, external-related) mortality.
We performed a longitudinal study on a historical prospective cohort based on nationwide screening prior to recruitment to the Israeli army. The study participants were 16–19-year-old persons who attended the army screening (medical and cognitive, including screening for psychiatric disorders) between 1967 and 2006. Participants were followed from 1967 till 2011.
The study included 2 051 606 subjects, of whom 1 229 252 (59.9%) were men and 822 354 (40.1%) were women, mean age 17.36 years. There were 55 508 (4.5%) men and 8237 (1.0%) women diagnosed with personality disorders. The adjusted hazard ratio (HRs) for coronary, stroke, cardiovascular, external-related causes and all-cause mortality among men with personality disorders were 1.34 (1.03–1.74), 1.82 (1.20–2.76), 1.45 (1.23–1.71), 1.41 (1.30–1.53) and 1.44 (1.36–1.51), respectively. The absolute rate difference for all-cause mortality was 56.07 and 13.19 per 105 person-years among men and women, respectively. Among women with personality disorders, the adjusted HRs for external-related causes and all-cause mortality were 2.74 (1.87–4.00) and 2.01 (1.56–2.58). Associations were already evident within 10 years of follow-up.
Personality disorder in late adolescence is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, external- and all-cause mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality is evident before the age of 40 years and may point to the importance of lifestyle education already in youth.
Chromaticity-type (C-type) horizontal cells of the turtle retina
receive antagonistic inputs from cones of different spectral types, and
therefore their response to background illumination is expected to
reflect light adaptation of the cones and the interactions between
their antagonistic inputs. Our goal was to study the behavior of C-type
horizontal cells during background illumination and to evaluate the
role of wavelength in background adaptation. The photoresponses of
C-type horizontal cells were recorded intracellularly in the everted
eyecup preparation of the turtle Mauremys caspica during
chromatic background illuminations. The voltage range of operation was
either reduced or augmented, depending upon the wavelengths of the
background and of the light stimuli, while the sensitivity to light was
decreased by any background. The response–intensity curves were
shifted to brighter intensities and became steeper as the background
lights were made brighter regardless of wavelength. Comparing the
effects of cone iso-luminant backgrounds on the Red/Green C-type
horizontal cells indicated that background desensitization in these
cells could not solely reflect background adaptation of cones but also
depend upon response compression/expansion and changes in synaptic
transmission. This leads to wavelength dependency of background
adaptation in C-type horizontal cells, that is expressed as increased
light sensitivity (smaller threshold elevation) and improved
suprathreshold contrast detection when the wavelengths of the
background and light stimuli were chosen to exert opponent effects on
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