The thermal behaviour of β-lactoglobulin was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range 40–160 °C. The DSC curves revealed, in addition to the usually observed denaturation peak near 80 °C, a distinct endothermal peak between 130 and 150 °C. When the pH was increased from 6·5, the area under the peak near 80 °C (denaturation heat) decreased significantly, whereas the peak area near 140 °C increased. The temperature of maximum heat absorption in the peaks near both 80 and 140 °C gradually increased as the pH decreased. Addition of sugars and variation of the heating rate both caused a temperature shift of the endothermal heat effect at 140 °C, similar to that at 80 °C. No peak near 140 °C was observed when β-mercapto-ethanol was added to the β-lactoglobulin solution before scanning. The origin and nature of the high temperature denaturation peak is discussed in terms of conformational changes of the protein.