Hooks et al. posit that gastrointestinal microbes alter the end state of development indirectly. Here, we present the immune system as the link that facilitates communication between the gut and the brain. Illustrating the case of autism spectrum disorder, we explicate the role of the immune system in responding to microbial dysbiosis by inducing an inflammatory state that affects neurodevelopment. We propose two models: directly, within the infant, and indirectly, via maternal and infant systems.