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Background: Socioeconomic barriers or divergent implementation of prevention measures may impact risk of healthcare-associated infections by racial groups. We utilized a previously studied cohort of patients to quantify disparities in central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) risk by race accounting for inherent differences in risk related to device utilization. Methods: In a retrospective cohort of adult patients at 4 hospitals (range, 110–733 beds) from 2012 to 2017, we linked central-line data to patient encounter data: race, age, comorbidities, total parenteral nutrition (TPN), chemotherapy, CLABSI. Analysis was limited to patients with >2 central-line days and <3 concurrent central lines. Patient exposures were calculated for each central-line episode (defined by insertion and removal dates); analysis of central-line episode-specific risk of CLABSI among Black versus White patients adjusted for clinical factors, duration of central-line episode, and central-line risk category (ie, low: single port, dialysis or PICC; medium: single temporary or nontunneled; or high: any concurrent central-lines) in Cox proportional hazards regression of time to CLABSI. Results: In total, 526 CLABSIs occurred a median of 14 days after insertion among 57,642 central-line episodes in 32,925 patients. CLABSIs occurred in similar frequency across racial groups: 217 (1.7%) among Black patients, 256 (1.6%) among White patients, and 11 (1.6%) among Hispanic patients (also 42 among unknown or other race). Duration of central-line episode was similar between racial groups (median, 5 days). Black patients were less likely to have medium-risk central lines (34%) compared to white patients (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79–0.84), but they had a similar frequency of high-risk central lines (21%; RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.0–1.1). Compared with low-risk central lines, risk of CLABSI was increased among medium-risk central lines (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0–1.7) and high-risk central lines (RR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8–2.7). CLABSIs were more likely in TPN central lines (RR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.9–2.7) than others, but they were not more likely among Black patients than White patients (RR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.1–1.1). In survival analysis, there were 24,700 central-line episodes among Black patients compared to 26,648 episodes among White patients; adjusting for central-line risk and TPN, the risk of CLABSI was similar during the first 21 days of central-line use (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.88–01.32) (Fig. 1). Conclusions: After accounting for central-line configuration, Black patients did not have a higher risk of CLABSI within 21 central-line days. Further evaluation is warranted to assess racial disparities in risks of other healthcare-associated infections and to determine whether a lack of CLABSI-specific racial disparities can be replicated in other regions and healthcare systems.
Background: Certain nursing home (NH) resident care tasks have a higher risk for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) transfer to healthcare personnel (HCP), which can result in transmission to residents if HCPs fail to perform recommended infection prevention practices. However, data on HCP-resident interactions are limited and do not account for intrafacility practice variation. Understanding differences in interactions, by HCP role and unit, is important for informing MDRO prevention strategies in NHs. Methods: In 2019, we conducted serial intercept interviews; each HCP was interviewed 6–7 times for the duration of a unit’s dayshift at 20 NHs in 7 states. The next day, staff on a second unit within the facility were interviewed during the dayshift. HCP on 38 units were interviewed to identify healthcare personnel (HCP)–resident care patterns. All unit staff were eligible for interviews, including certified nursing assistants (CNAs), nurses, physical or occupational therapists, physicians, midlevel practitioners, and respiratory therapists. HCP were asked to list which residents they had cared for (within resident rooms or common areas) since the prior interview. Respondents selected from 14 care tasks. We classified units into 1 of 4 types: long-term, mixed, short stay or rehabilitation, or ventilator or skilled nursing. Interactions were classified based on the risk of HCP contamination after task performance. We compared proportions of interactions associated with each HCP role and performed clustered linear regression to determine the effect of unit type and HCP role on the number of unique task types performed per interaction. Results: Intercept-interviews described 7,050 interactions and 13,843 care tasks. Except in ventilator or skilled nursing units, CNAs have the greatest proportion of care interactions (interfacility range, 50%–60%) (Fig. 1). In ventilator and skilled nursing units, interactions are evenly shared between CNAs and nurses (43% and 47%, respectively). On average, CNAs in ventilator and skilled nursing units perform the most unique task types (2.5 task types per interaction, Fig. 2) compared to other unit types (P < .05). Compared to CNAs, most other HCP types had significantly fewer task types (0.6–1.4 task types per interaction, P < .001). Across all facilities, 45.6% of interactions included tasks that were higher-risk for HCP contamination (eg, transferring, wound and device care, Fig. 3). Conclusions: Focusing infection prevention education efforts on CNAs may be most efficient for preventing MDRO transmission within NH because CNAs have the most HCP–resident interactions and complete more tasks per visit. Studies of HCP-resident interactions are critical to improving understanding of transmission mechanisms as well as target MDRO prevention interventions.
Funding: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (grant no. U01CK000555-01-00)
Disclosures: Scott Fridkin, consulting fee, vaccine industry (spouse)
To determine the best nursing home facility characteristics for aggregating antibiotic susceptibility testing results across nursing homes to produce a useful annual antibiogram that nursing homes can use in their antimicrobial stewardship programs.
Derivation cohort study.
Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) certified skilled nursing facilities in Georgia (N = 231).
All residents of eligible facilities submitting urine culture specimens for microbiologic testing at a regional referral laboratory.
Crude and adjusted metrics of antibiotic resistance prevalence (percent of isolates testing susceptible) for 5 bacterial species commonly recovered from urine specimens were calculated using mixed linear models to determine which facility characteristics were predictive of testing antibiotic susceptibility.
In a single year, most facilities had an insufficient number of isolates tested to create facility-specific antibiograms: 49% of facilities had sufficient Escherichia coli isolates tested, but only about 1 in 10 had sufficient isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After accounting for antibiotic tested and age of the patient, facility characteristics predictive of susceptibility were: E. coli, region, year, average length of stay; K. pneumoniae, region, bed size; P. mirabilis, region; and for E. faecalis or P. aerginosa no facility parameter remained in the model.
Nursing homes often have insufficient data to create facility-specific antibiograms; aggregating data across nursing homes in a region is a statistically sound approach to overcoming data shortages in nursing home stewardship programs.
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