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In this report, the authors prepared an opinion poll regarding the most important people, events, technologies, concepts, discoveries, and therapies in paediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery. The results were presented in continuous slide show format at the 2017 Seventh World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology & Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS 2017), Barcelona, Spain. The presentation (under international copyright) is made available herein for educational purposes.
In substantial numbers of affected populations, disasters adversely affect well-being and influence the development of emotional problems and dysfunctional behaviors. Nowhere is the integration of mental and behavioral health into broader public health and medical preparedness and response activities more crucial than in disasters such as the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The National Biodefense Science Board, recognizing that the mental and behavioral health responses to H1N1 were vital to preserving safety and health for the country, requested that the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee recommend actions for public health officials to prevent and mitigate adverse behavioral health outcomes during the H1N1 pandemic. The subcommittee's recommendations emphasized vulnerable populations and concentrated on interventions, education and training, and communication and messaging. The subcommittee's H1N1 activities and recommendations provide an approach and template for identifying and addressing future efforts related to newly emerging public health and medical emergencies. The many emotional and behavioral health implications of the crisis and the importance of psychological factors in determining the behavior of members of the public argue for a programmatic integration of behavioral health and science expertise in a comprehensive public health response.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:67–71)
The close interplay between mental health and physical health makes it critical to integrate mental and behavioral health considerations into all aspects of public health and medical disaster management. Therefore, the National Biodefense Science Board (NBSB) convened the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee to assess the progress of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in integrating mental and behavioral health into disaster and emergency preparedness and response activities. One vital opportunity to improve integration is the development of clear and directive national policy to firmly establish the role of mental and behavioral health as part of a unified public health and medical response to disasters. Integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery requires it to be incorporated in assessments and services, addressed in education and training, and founded on and advanced through research. Integration must be supported in underlying policies and administration with clear lines of responsibility for formulating and implementing policy and practice.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:60–66)
Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and on the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the first part of a two-part series. Part 1 will cover the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. This procedural nomenclature of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code will be used in the IMPACT Registry™ (IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment) of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry® of The American College of Cardiology. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.
The proportion of the Latin American population aged >60 years is expected to double during the next few decades. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, little is known about MetS in Latin America in general, and in Ecuador in particular. The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of MetS and its association with blood micronutrient, homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the elderly living in a low-income urban area.
We performed a cross-sectional study. MetS, using the International Diabetes Federation definition, dietary intake and plasma micronutrient, CRP and Hcy concentrations were assessed.
A total of 352 elderly (≥65 years) Ecuadorians.
MetS was prevalent (40 %) – considerably more so among women (81 %) than men (19 %; χ2 = 32·6, P < 0·0001). Further, 53 % of those without MetS exhibited two or more of its components. Micronutrient deficiencies were prevalent, including those of vitamin C, zinc, vitamin B12 and folate. Vitamin C and E concentrations were inversely (OR = 0·78, 95 % CI 0·71, 0·86; OR = 0·16, 95 % CI 0·03, 0·81, respectively) and CRP (OR = 1·79, 95 % CI 1·04, 3·06) was positively associated with MetS.
The coexistence of MetS with micronutrient deficiencies suggests that elderly Ecuadorians suffer from the double burden of diseases that are increasingly being observed in less developed countries. More research is needed to determine the causal factors, but results presented suggest that these older adults would benefit from interventions to reduce the risk factors for MetS, in particular higher consumption of micronutrient-rich foods.
The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion (www.bestpracticeperfusion.org) is a collaborative partnership of societies of perfusionists, professional medical societies, and interested clinicians, whose aim is to promote the continuous improvement of the delivery of care and outcomes for patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. Despite the many advances made throughout the history of cardiopulmonary bypass, significant variation in practice and potential for complication remains. To help address this issue, the International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion has joined the Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to develop a list of complications in congenital cardiac surgery related to extracorporeal circulation conducted via cardiopulmonary bypass, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or mechanical circulatory support devices, which include ventricular assist devices and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Understanding and defining the complications that may occur related to extracorporeal circulation in congenital patients is requisite for assessing and subsequently improving the care provided to the patients we serve. The aim of this manuscript is to identify and define the myriad of complications directly related to the extracorporeal circulation of congenital patients.
De nos jours l'usinage de surfaces complexes reste une opération délicate à maîtriser. Deux procédés permettent d'obtenir de telles surfaces en usinage : le fraisage en roulant avec une fraise cylindrique ou conique et le fraisage en bout avec une fraise hémisphérique ou torique. Le fraisage en roulant étant plus productif que le fraisage en bout, il serait donc intéressant de l'utiliser pour usiner tout type de surface. Le problème de ce mode de génération de surface est qu'il engendre des interférences locales (positives ou négatives) par rapport à la surface théorique. La solution innovante proposée par ces travaux consiste à jouer sur la forme de l'outil en utilisant des fraises à géométrie particulière en forme de tonneau, le but étant de diminuer les interférences locales. L'objectif de cette étude est la géométrie de la fraise tonneau en fonction de la surface et des tolérances imposées.
In December 1999, an outbreak of diarrhea was reported in a general hospital neonatal medium care unit (NMCU) caused by a novel strain of rotavirus with genotype P, G9. An investigation was conducted to determine risk factors for illness among neonates.
Rotavirus diagnosis was by latex agglutination and typing by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A case-control study was performed using data collected from medical records on exposures in a 3-day period before illness (cases) or a random 3-day period (controls). Environmental swabs were tested for rotavirus. Antenatal blood samples from mothers and blood samples provided by hospital staff were analyzed for rotavirus antibodies.
Fifty-six cases of rotaviral illness were confirmed by latex agglutination. Forty-seven of these were among 118 neonates exposed to the NMCU (attack rate, 40%). There was a 4-week period with no clinical cases in the course of the outbreak. Increased frequency (s≥ 15 times in 3 days) of ungloved nasogastric feeding was a significant risk factor (adjusted odds ratio, 8.79), controlling for birth weight and gestational age. Environmental sampling showed persistence of the virus on ward surfaces despite cleaning. None of 24 NMCU staff members had high levels of antibodies against P, G9. Three (8%) of 38 mothers had high antibody levels; 2 had infants who became ill. The outbreak ended with a 7-day ward closure, disinfection, and introduction of gloved nasogastric feeding.
Case-control studies can be successful in identifying risk factors for nosocomial outbreaks of diarrhea. High levels of rotavirus antibodies in mothers may not protect infants. The environment may be the most important reservoir of rotavirus during outbreaks.
In the waking dog, a small dose of morphine (0·1 mg/kg intravenously) was sufficient (1) to induce a quite appreciable state of sedation which might be more closely related to clinical analgesia than experimental nociception, and (2) to allow for precipitation of clear-cut signs of abstinence (agitation, tachycardia, tachypnoea, mydriasis, hyperthermia, tremors, salivation, urination) when naloxone (3 mg/kg subcutaneously) was injected 1·5 hours later.
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