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The purpose of this article is to set the context for this special issue of Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness on the allocation of scarce resources in an improvised nuclear device incident. A nuclear detonation occurs when a sufficient amount of fissile material is brought suddenly together to reach critical mass and cause an explosion. Although the chance of a nuclear detonation is thought to be small, the consequences are potentially catastrophic, so planning for an effective medical response is necessary, albeit complex. A substantial nuclear detonation will result in physical effects and a great number of casualties that will require an organized medical response to save lives. With this type of incident, the demand for resources to treat casualties will far exceed what is available. To meet the goal of providing medical care (including symptomatic/palliative care) with fairness as the underlying ethical principle, planning for allocation of scarce resources among all involved sectors needs to be integrated and practiced. With thoughtful and realistic planning, the medical response in the chaotic environment may be made more effective and efficient for both victims and medical responders.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:S20-S31)
We have developed a new pre-deposition, remote N2O plasma oxidation treatment for forming nitrided SiO2 films and report here the quality and reliability of devices fabricated with these films. The Si-dielectric heterostructure process has been separated into three independently-controlled steps: i) final Si surface cleaning, and Si – SiO2 interface formation by plasma-assisted oxidation/nitridation at 300 °C; ii) remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of nitrided dielectrics, also at 300 °C; and iii) optional post-deposition rapid thermal annealing. This paper focuses on the first step in which the oxidation has been performed with O2, N2O or N2O / O2 mixtures to control the amount of N-atoms at the interface, Nint. We show that the incorporation of up to ∼ 1015 N-atoms/cm2 at the Si-SiO2 interface by this process has no effect on threshold voltage, Vt, or peak channel transconductance, gm,max, but does improve high-field gm and transistor drive current. Improved resistance to Vt and gm,max degradation during hot-carrier stressing of sub-micron devices is also discussed.
My dear Mackenzie, the fact is—my plays are too liberal for the aristocratic illiberals of Ireland.… My plays breathe the noble sentiments of the influential classes of Ireland.… But I am going to a place where the feelings and the reality of liberty exist in their most glowing form—and not the form alone, but the embodied spirit. I am going to America.
A reviewer of a production of Edward Young's tragedy, The Revenge, in 1815, wrote:
Sound morality and good manners demand that this Play should either be greatly altered, or banished from the Stage. No character of Kotzebue is either so unnatural or so dangerous as Zanga. We may pronounce him a despicable coward by the surest test of cowardice – a vindictive spirit that knows not how to pardon…. Zanga is described as brave, heroic, and noble, yet forgiveness is not in his nature. He is more contemptibly mean – more desperately wicked than Iago. He is made more an object of esteem and pity than Othello…. Why did not the author make him the victim of his own contrivances? Why did he not exemplify in the disappointment of Zanga, the sure punishment of an indiscriminate revenge? … He is a fiend that gains our respect by forcing our admiration, and he does this when the real nature of his actions qualify him rather for the gibbit than for the honourable termination of his life.
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