A long-term study was conducted at Lethbridge, Alberta, to determine the response of weed populations to various crop rotations and tillage treatments. Weed density and species composition differed with rotation, tillage, and date of sampling within years. Fewer weeds were found in winter wheat-fallow than continuous winter wheat, winter wheat-lentil, or winter wheat-canola rotations. A dense infestation of downy brome developed in the continuous winter wheat rotation. In all rotations, more weeds were present in zero tillage plots than in either minimum or conventional tillage plots. Dandelion and perennial sowthistle densities increased slightly over years in the minimum and zero tillage treatments. Flixweed, field pennycress, wild buckwheat, and common lambsquarters densities decreased in zero till but densities of downy brome, redroot pigweed, and Russian thistle increased. Russian thistle was not well controlled with trifluralin and its density increased in the winter wheat-canola rotation.