The performance of unbaited emergence traps and attractant-baited pitfall and flight traps was compared on the basis of suitability to produce population indices for two beetles, Steremnius carinatus (Boheman) and Hylastes nigrinus (Mannerheim), colonizing roots of Douglas fir in northern California. These beetles transmit Ceratocystis wageneri Goheen and Cobb, the fungus causing black stain root disease in Douglas fir. Trap sites were near stumps along transect lines through recently logged areas. Pitfall traps were judged the most promising for both species based on their relatively high catches and low expense. Although catch by emergence traps was low for both species, they appeared to catch the majority of S. carinatus. For both species, pitfall trap catches varied with date, study area, trapping line within study area, and stump within line. A number of variables, such as diameter of stump or type of ground cover, were significantly correlated with trap catch, and made significant contributions to linear models with catch as the dependent variable. Differences between study areas in the effect of variables on catch, and the possibility that pitfall trapping is subject to artifacts, suggested that the results of pitfall trapping need to be carefully scrutinized if they are to be used as a population index.