To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented demands on health systems, where hospitals have become overwhelmed with patients amidst limited resources. Disaster response and resource allocation during such crises present multiple challenges. A breakdown in communication and organization can lead to unnecessary disruptions and adverse events. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) promotes the use of an incident command system (ICS) model during large-scale disasters, and we hope that an institutional disaster plan and ICS will help to mitigate these lapses. In this article, we describe the alignment of an emergency department (ED) specific Forward Command structure with the hospital ICS and address the challenges specific to the ED. Key components of this ICS include a hospital-wide incident command or Joint Operations Center (JOC) and an ED Forward Command. This type of structure leads to a shared mental model with division of responsibilities that allows institutional adaptations to changing environments and maintenance of specific roles for optimal coordination and communication. We present this as a model that can be applied to other hospital EDs around the country to help structure the response to the COVID-19 pandemic while remaining generalizable to other disaster situations.
Large-scale mass-sporting events are increasingly requiring greater prehospital event planning and preparation to address inherent event-associated medical conditions in addition to incidents that may be unexpected. The Bank of America Chicago Marathon (Chicago, Illinois USA) is one of the largest marathons in the world, and with the improvement of technology, the use of historical patient and event data, in conjunction with environmental conditions, can provide organizers and public safety officials a way to plan based on injury patterns and patient demands for care by predicting the placement and timing of needed medical support and resources.
During large-scale events, disaster planning and preparedness between event organizers, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and local, state, and federal agencies is critical to ensure participant and public safety.
This study looked at the Bank of America Chicago Marathon, a significant endurance event, and took a unique approach of reviewing digital runner data retrospectively over a five-year period to establish patterns of medical demand geographically, temporally, and by the presenting diagnoses. Most medical complaints were musculoskeletal in nature; however, there were life-threatening conditions such as hyperthermia and cardiac incidents that highlight the need for detailed planning, coordination, and communication to ensure a safe and secure event.
The Chicago Marathon is one of the largest marathons in the world, and this study identified an equal number of participants requiring care on-course and at the finish line. Most medical complaints were musculoskeletal in nature; however, there were life-threatening conditions such as hyperthermia and cardiac incidents that highlight the need for detailed planning, multi-disciplined coordination, and communication to ensure a safe and secure event. As technology has evolved, the use, analysis, and implementation of historical digital data with various environmental conditions can provide organizers and public safety officials a map to plan injury patterns and patient demands by predicting the placement and timing of needed medical support, personnel, and resources.
As one of the largest marathons worldwide, the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (BACCM; Chicago, Illinois USA) accumulates high volumes of data. Race organizers and engaged agencies need the ability to access specific data in real-time. This report details a data visualization system designed for the Chicago Marathon and establishes key principles for event management data visualization. The data visualization system allows for efficient data communication among the organizing agencies of Chicago endurance events. Agencies can observe the progress of the race throughout the day and obtain needed information, such as the number and location of runners on the course and current weather conditions. Implementation of the system can reduce time-consuming, face-to-face interactions between involved agencies by having key data streams in one location, streamlining communications with the purpose of improving race logistics, as well as medical preparedness and response.
HankenT, YoungS, SmilowitzK, ChiampasG, WaskowskiD. Developing a Data Visualization System for the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (Chicago, Illinois USA). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):572–577.
Planning and execution of mass-gathering events involves various challenges. In this case report, the Chicago Model (CM), which was designed to organize and operate such events and to maintain the health and wellbeing of both runners and the public in a more effective way, is described. The Chicago Model also was designed to prepare for unexpected incidents, including disasters, during the marathon event. The model has been used successfully in the planning and execution stages of the Bank of America Shamrock Shuffle and the Bank of America Chicago Marathon since 2008. The key components of the CM are organizational structure, information systems, and communication. This case report describes how the organizers at the 2013 Shamrock Shuffle used the key components of the CM approach in order to respond to an acute incident caused by a man who was threatening to jump off the State Street Bridge. The course route was changed to accommodate this unexpected event, while maintaining access to key health care facilities. The lessons learned from the incident are presented and further improvements to the existing model are proposed.
BaşdereM, RossC, ChanJL, MehrotraS, SmilowitzK, ChiampasG. Acute Incident Rapid Response at a Mass-Gathering Event Through Comprehensive Planning Systems: A Case Report from the 2013 Shamrock Shuffle. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(3):1-6.
This chapter presents the key facts, clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, treatment of procedures, and prognosis of shoulder and elbow emergencies such as glenohumeral dislocations, scapular fractures, clavicle fractures, sternoclavicular (SC) injuries, acromioclavicular injuries, and proximal humerus fractures. Failure to obtain a lateral projection can result in missing a posterior dislocation in up to 50% of cases. Reductions performed with intra-articular anesthetic injections have been safely performed with equivalent success rates, similar patient comfort, shorter ED length of stays, and lower complication rates. Electromyogram (EMG) testing can be performed at a later date to evaluate suspected nerve injuries. Presence of a posterior SC dislocation should prompt evaluation for associated injuries to the trachea, esophagus, and great vessels, which are in close proximity to the SC joint. Plain radiographs are the preferred test for evaluation of suspected humeral shaft fractures.
Police officers often serve as first responders during out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA). Current knowledge and attitudes about resuscitation techniques among police officers are unknown.
This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs) among urban police officers and quantified the effect of video self-instruction (VSI) on these outcomes.
Urban police officers were enrolled in this online, prospective, educational study conducted over one month. Demographics, prior CPR-AED experience, and baseline attitudes were queried. Subjects were randomized into two groups. Each group received a slightly different multiple-choice test of knowledge and crossed to the alternate test after the intervention, a 10-minute VSI on CPR and AEDs. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed immediately before and after the intervention. The primary attitude outcome was entering “very likely” (5-point Likert) to do chest compressions (CC) and use an AED on a stranger. The primary knowledge outcomes were identification of the correct rate of CC, depth of CC, and action in an OHCA scenario.
A total of 1616 subjects responded with complete data (63.6% of all electronic entries). Randomization produced 819 participants in group 1, and 797 in group 2. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ significantly in any background variable. After the intervention, subjects “very likely” to do CC on a stranger increased by 17.2% (95% CI, 12.5%-21.8%) in group 1 and 21.2% (95% CI, 16.4%-25.9%) in group 2. Subjects “very likely” to use an AED on a stranger increased by 20.0% (95% CI, 15.3%-24.7%) in group 1 and 25.0% (95% CI, 20.2%-29.6%) in group 2. Knowledge of correct CC rate increased by 59.0% (95% CI, 55.0%-62.8%) in group 1 and 64.8% (95% CI, 60.8%-68.3%) in group 2. Knowledge of correct CC depth increased by 44.8% (95% CI, 40.5%-48.8%) in group 1 and 54.4% (95% CI, 50.3%-58.3%) in group 2. Knowledge of correct action in an OHCA scenario increased by 27.4% (95% CI, 23.4%-31.4%) in group 1 and 27.2% (95% CI, 23.3%-31.1%) in group 2.
Video self-instruction can significantly improve attitudes toward and knowledge of CPR and AEDs among police officers. Future studies can assess the impact of VSI on actual rates of CPR and AED use during real out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.
AldeenAZ, HartmanND, SequraA, PhullA, ShawDM, ChiampasGT, CourtneyDM. Video Self-instruction for Police Officers in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Automated External Defibrillators. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(5):1-6.
Disaster response requires rapid, complex action by multiple agencies that may rarely interact during nondisaster periods. Failures in communication and coordination between agencies have been pitfalls in the advancement of disaster preparedness. Recommendations of the Federal Emergency Management Agency address these needs and demonstrate commitment to successful disaster management, but they are challenging for communities to ensure. In this article we describe the application of Federal Emergency Management Agency guidelines to the 2008 and 2009 Chicago Marathon and discuss the details of our implementation strategy with a focus on optimizing communication. We believe that it is possible to enhance community disaster preparedness through practical application during mass sporting events.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:310–315)
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.