To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Self-binding directives (SBDs) are psychiatric advance directives that include a clause in which mental health service users consent in advance to involuntary hospital admission and treatment under specified conditions. Medical ethicists and legal scholars identified various potential benefits of SBDs but have also raised ethical concerns. Until recently, little was known about the views of stakeholders on the opportunities and challenges of SBDs.
This article aims to foster an international exchange on SBDs by comparing recent empirical findings on stakeholders’ views on the opportunities and challenges of SBDs from Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.
Comparisons between the empirical findings were drawn using a structured expert consensus process.
Findings converged on many points. Perceived opportunities of SBDs include promotion of autonomy, avoidance of personally defined harms, early intervention, reduction of admission duration, improvement of the therapeutic relationship, involvement of persons of trust, avoidance of involuntary hospital admission, addressing trauma, destigmatization of involuntary treatment, increase of professionals’ confidence, and relief for proxy decision-makers. Perceived challenges include lack of awareness and knowledge, lack of support, undue influence, inaccessibility during crisis, lack of cross-agency coordination, problems of interpretation, difficulties in capacity assessment, restricted therapeutic flexibility, scarce resources, disappointment due to noncompliance, and outdated content. Stakeholders tended to focus on practical challenges and did not often raise fundamental ethical concerns.
Stakeholders tend to see the implementation of SBDs as ethically desirable, provided that the associated challenges are addressed.
Individuals with bipolar disorder are commonly correctly diagnosed a decade after symptom onset. Machine learning techniques may aid in early recognition and reduce the disease burden. As both individuals at risk and those with a manifest disease display structural brain markers, structural magnetic resonance imaging may provide relevant classification features.
Following a pre-registered protocol, we trained linear support vector machine (SVM) to classify individuals according to their estimated risk for bipolar disorder using regional cortical thickness of help-seeking individuals from seven study sites (N = 276). We estimated the risk using three state-of-the-art assessment instruments (BPSS-P, BARS, EPIbipolar).
For BPSS-P, SVM achieved a fair performance of Cohen's κ of 0.235 (95% CI 0.11–0.361) and a balanced accuracy of 63.1% (95% CI 55.9–70.3) in the 10-fold cross-validation. In the leave-one-site-out cross-validation, the model performed with a Cohen's κ of 0.128 (95% CI −0.069 to 0.325) and a balanced accuracy of 56.2% (95% CI 44.6–67.8). BARS and EPIbipolar could not be predicted. In post hoc analyses, regional surface area, subcortical volumes as well as hyperparameter optimization did not improve the performance.
Individuals at risk for bipolar disorder, as assessed by BPSS-P, display brain structural alterations that can be detected using machine learning. The achieved performance is comparable to previous studies which attempted to classify patients with manifest disease and healthy controls. Unlike previous studies of bipolar risk, our multicenter design permitted a leave-one-site-out cross-validation. Whole-brain cortical thickness seems to be superior to other structural brain features.
The experience of time, or the temporal order of external and internal events, is essential for humans. In psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, impairment of time processing has been discussed for a long time.
In this explorative pilot study, therefore, the subjective time feeling as well as objective time perception were determined in patients with depression and schizophrenia, along with possible neurobiological correlates.
Depressed (n = 34; 32.4 ± 9.8 years; 21 men) and schizophrenic patients (n = 31; 35.1 ± 10.7 years; 22 men) and healthy subjects (n = 33; 32.8 ± 14.3 years; 16 men) were tested using time feeling questionnaires, time perception tasks and critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFF) and loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) to determine serotonergic neurotransmission.
There were significant differences between the three groups regarding time feeling and also in time perception tasks (estimation of given time duration) and CFF (the “DOWN” condition). Regarding the LDAEP, patients with schizophrenia showed a significant negative correlation to time experience in terms of a pathologically increased serotonergic neurotransmission with disturbed time feeling.
Impairment of time experience seems to play an important role in depression and schizophrenia, both subjectively and objectively, and novel neurobiological correlates have been uncovered. It is suggested, therefore, that alteration of experience of time should be increasingly included in the current psychopathological findings.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, with its impact on our way of life, is affecting our experiences and mental health. Notably, individuals with mental disorders have been reported to have a higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. Personality traits could represent an important determinant of preventative health behaviour and, therefore, the risk of contracting the virus.
We examined overlapping genetic underpinnings between major psychiatric disorders, personality traits and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to explore the genetic correlations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility with psychiatric disorders and personality traits based on data from the largest available respective genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In two cohorts (the PsyCourse (n = 1346) and the HeiDE (n = 3266) study), polygenic risk scores were used to analyse if a genetic association between, psychiatric disorders, personality traits and COVID-19 susceptibility exists in individual-level data.
We observed no significant genetic correlations of COVID-19 susceptibility with psychiatric disorders. For personality traits, there was a significant genetic correlation for COVID-19 susceptibility with extraversion (P = 1.47 × 10−5; genetic correlation 0.284). Yet, this was not reflected in individual-level data from the PsyCourse and HeiDE studies.
We identified no significant correlation between genetic risk factors for severe psychiatric disorders and genetic risk for COVID-19 susceptibility. Among the personality traits, extraversion showed evidence for a positive genetic association with COVID-19 susceptibility, in one but not in another setting. Overall, these findings highlight a complex contribution of genetic and non-genetic components in the interaction between COVID-19 susceptibility and personality traits or mental disorders.
The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of gender, age at onset, and duration on the long-term course of schizophrenia.
Twenty-nine centers from 25 countries representing all continents participated in the study that included 2358 patients aged 37.21 ± 11.87 years with a DSM-IV or DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia; the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale as well as relevant clinicodemographic data were gathered. Analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were used, and the methodology corrected for the presence of potentially confounding effects.
There was a 3-year later age at onset for females (P < .001) and lower rates of negative symptoms (P < .01) and higher depression/anxiety measures (P < .05) at some stages. The age at onset manifested a distribution with a single peak for both genders with a tendency of patients with younger onset having slower advancement through illness stages (P = .001). No significant effects were found concerning duration of illness.
Our results confirmed a later onset and a possibly more benign course and outcome in females. Age at onset manifested a single peak in both genders, and surprisingly, earlier onset was related to a slower progression of the illness. No effect of duration has been detected. These results are partially in accord with the literature, but they also differ as a consequence of the different starting point of our methodology (a novel staging model), which in our opinion precluded the impact of confounding effects. Future research should focus on the therapeutic policy and implications of these results in more representative samples.
The interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) is one of the most intensively researched contemporary theories on the development of suicidal ideation and behaviour. However, there is a lack of carefully conducted prospective studies.
To evaluate the main predictions of the IPTS regarding the importance of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and capability for suicide in predicting future suicide attempts in a prospective design.
Psychiatric in-patients (n = 308; 53.6% (n = 165) female; mean age 36.82 years, s.d. = 14.30, range 18–81) admitted for severe suicidal ideation (n = 145, 47.1%) or a suicide attempt completed self-report measures of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, capability for suicide, hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation as well as interviews on suicide intent and suicide attempts and were followed up for 12 months. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis were conducted.
The interaction of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and capability for suicide was not predictive of future suicide attempts, but perceived burdensomeness showed a significant main effect (z = 3.49, P < 0.01; OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.59–3.58) and moderate performance in screening for future suicide attempts (area under the curve AUC = 0.729, P < 0.01).
The results challenge the theoretical validity of the IPTS and its clinical utility – at least within the methodological limitations of the current study. Yet, findings underscore the importance of perceived burdensomeness in understanding suicidal ideation and behaviour.
Bipolar disorders are frequently not diagnosed until long after their onset, leaving patients with no or correspondingly inadequate treatment. The course of the disorder is all the more severe and the negative repercussions for those affected all the greater. Concerted research effort is therefore going into learning how to recognize bipolar disorders at an early stage. Drawing on current research results, this paper presents considerations for an integrative Early Symptom Scale with which persons at risk can be identified and timely intervention initiated. This will require prospective studies to determine the predictive power of the risk factors integrated into the scale.
The aim of the current study was to explore the changing interrelationships among clinical variables through the stages of schizophrenia in order to assemble a comprehensive and meaningful disease model.
Twenty-nine centers from 25 countries participated and included 2358 patients aged 37.21 ± 11.87 years with schizophrenia. Multiple linear regression analysis and visual inspection of plots were performed.
The results suggest that with progression stages, there are changing correlations among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors at each stage and each factor correlates with all the others in that particular stage, in which this factor is dominant. This internal structure further supports the validity of an already proposed four stages model, with positive symptoms dominating the first stage, excitement/hostility the second, depression the third, and neurocognitive decline the last stage.
The current study investigated the mental organization and functioning in patients with schizophrenia in relation to different stages of illness progression. It revealed two distinct “cores” of schizophrenia, the “Positive” and the “Negative,” while neurocognitive decline escalates during the later stages. Future research should focus on the therapeutic implications of such a model. Stopping the progress of the illness could demand to stop the succession of stages. This could be achieved not only by both halting the triggering effect of positive and negative symptoms, but also by stopping the sensitization effect on the neural pathways responsible for the development of hostility, excitement, anxiety, and depression as well as the deleterious effect on neural networks responsible for neurocognition.
It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates.
The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates.
Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation.
There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged.
Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate.
Decline in social functioning occurs in individuals who later develop psychosis.
To investigate whether baseline differences in disability are present in those who do and those who do not make a transition to psychosis in a group clinically at high risk and whether disability is a risk factor for transition.
Prospective multicentre, naturalistic field study with an 18-month follow-up period on 245 help-seeking individuals clinically at high risk. Disability was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule of the World Health Organization (WHODAS–II).
At baseline, the transition group displayed significantly greater difficulties in making new friends (z =−3.40, P = 0.001), maintaining a friendship (z =−3.00, P = 0.003), dealing with people they do not know (z =−2.28, P = 0.023) and joining community activities (z =−2.0, P = 0.05) compared with the non-transition group. In Cox regression, difficulties in getting along with people significantly contributed to the prediction of transition to psychosis in our sample (β = 0.569, s.e. = 0.184, Wald = 9.548, P = 0.002, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.767, 95% CI 1.238–2.550).
Certain domains of social disability might contribute to the prediction of psychosis in a sample clinically at high risk.
Los trastornos bipolares con frecuencia no se diagnostican hasta mucho después de su inicio, dejando a los pacientes sin tratamiento o con un tratamiento en consecuencia inadecuado. El curso del trastorno es aún más grave y las repercusiones negativas para los afectados, todavía mayores. Por tanto, se está dirigiendo un esfuerzo de investigación concertado a aprender cómo reconocer los trastornos bipolares en una fase temprana. Basándose en los resultados de la investigación actual, este artículo presenta consideraciones para una Escala de Síntomas Tempranos integradora con la que se pueda identificar a las personas en situación de riesgo e iniciar una intervención oportuna. Esto requerirá estudios prospectivos para determinar el poder predictivo de los factores de riesgo integrados en la escala.
Accurate and early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
with reliable and noninvasive methods is of great importance
for clinical practice as effective and specific antidementive
therapies become available. The aim of the study was to evaluate
the clinical relevance of event-related P300 in the early diagnosis
of AD. Thirty patients with AD, 26 patients with mild cognitive
impairment (MCI) from our Memory Clinic and 26 age-matched healthy
controls (HC) were studied with event-related P300 potentials.
Amplitudes of temporo-basal dipoles (TB-P300) were significantly
diminished in AD compared to HC and MCI. Furthermore, latencies
of temporo-superior dipoles (TS-P300) were significantly prolonged
in AD compared with HC. Sensitivity was 90.0% for the
differentiation of patients with AD from HC (specificity 79.1%)
using reduced TB-P300 amplitudes and prolonged TS-P300 latencies.
Similar results were found using Pz amplitudes as well as Fz
latencies. Our data suggest that TB-P300 amplitudes and TS-P300
latencies may be an accurate clinically available, nonexpensive,
noninvasive, and reliable marker for AD.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.