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The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
A false cleavers population that survived treatment with triasulfuron/bromoxynil in 1996 was identified in central Alberta, Canada, in a field that had been treated with acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors in 3 of the previous 6 yr. In greenhouse studies, this biotype was highly resistant to the ALS inhibitors triasulfuron, thifensulfuron/tribenuron, and sulfometuron and moderately resistant to imazethapyr; GR50, values were > 16, > 5, > 1.0, and 9.9, respectively. In addition, cross-resistance was identified to the auxin-type herbicide quinclorac (GR50 value > 6.7) but not to fluroxypyr (GR50 value 1) or MCPA/mecoprop/dicamba. Quinclorac had not been used previously in this field. Analysis of ALS extracted from the resistant biotype and a susceptible biotype from a nearby location indicated that resistance to ALS inhibitors was due to an altered target site with reduced sensitivity to a broad range of ALS inhibitors. The ALS I50 values for triasulfuron, metsulfuron, chlorsulfuron, thifensulfuron, and imazethapyr were 36, 34, 92, 96, and 14 times higher, respectively, for the resistant compared to the susceptible biotype. The mechanism of resistance to quinclorac is unknown. This is the first report of high-level herbicide resistance in this weed species.
A high proportion of island birds are threatened with extinction as a result of their vulnerability to introduced predators,
habitat destruction, and fragmentation/isolation effects. In order to conserve island species effectively, it is necessary
to disentangle these effects on distribution and abundance. We attempt to do this for the nine native passerines in the
Falkland (Malvinas) Islands, using a database of presence/absence on 59 offshore islands in the archipelago, linked to
data for each island on mammal presence, habitat modification, and isolation. Falklands native passerines are of
considerable conservation importance, comprising one endemic globally threatened species, several endemic subspecies,
and several restricted range species. Presence of rats on islands was by far the most important predictor of
passerine presence, overriding the effect of habitat modifications. The globally threatened endemic Cobb's Wren
Troglodytes cobbi was absent from all islands containing rats. Some species were more likely, and others less likely
to occur on islands where tussac Poa flabellata grassland had been destroyed by grazing. The former species were
primarily those adapted to dwarf-heath vegetation, and/or that thrive around human settlements. Island size and
isolation were important predictors of occurrence for several bird species. The analyses show that, if vegetation restoration
in the Falklands is to meet conservation aims, then it should be accompanied by introduced mammal control. Secondly,
they indicate that biogeographical effects on bird distribution among islands in the Falklands are important, and need
to be considered when assessing the conservation status of species, and when considering conservation action.
This review focuses on contemporary work in discourse stylistics, defined here as that designated branch of stylistics which draws specifically on the techniques and methods of discourse analysis. The review acknowledges a key assumption in modern discourse stylistic research, namely that the distinction between ‘literary’ and ‘nonliterary’ discourse, if tenable at all, is drawn not on a purely linguistic basis but in terms of multiple intersections among texts, readers, institutions, and sociocultural contexts. In spanning studies of both literary and nonliterary discourse, therefore, the coverage of the present review is intended to reflect this axiom. It also attempts to foreground the diversity of method and approach in contemporary discourse stylistics. Given that the techniques of discourse analysis are themselves many and various, the survey seeks to cover stylistic work that offers productive applications of the many available models in pragmatics, conversation analysis, cognitive linguistics, speech act theory, and discourse psychology. Finally, in covering a selection of important monographs, articles, and book chapters, the review seeks both to highlight some of the critical, cultural, and ideological frameworks currently employed by discourse stylisticians and to demarcate, in more general terms, the current state-of-play in this research tradition.
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