To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The draft Mental Health Bill, which amends the Mental Health Act 1983 for England and Wales, proposes protections for people with intellectual disability and/or autism (ID/A) to prevent detention in hospital in the absence of mental illness. This editorial critically appraises the positive impact and unintended consequences of the proposed reforms for people with ID/A.
Considerable literature has examined the COVID-19 pandemic’s negative mental health sequelae. It is recognised that most people experiencing mental health problems present to primary care and the development of interventions to support GPs in the care of patients with mental health problems is a priority. This review examines interventions to enhance GP care of mental health disorders, with a view to reviewing how mental health needs might be addressed in the post-COVID-19 era.
Five electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and WHO ‘Global Research on COVID-19’) were searched from May – July 2021 for papers published in English following Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage scoping review process.
The initial search identified 148 articles and a total of 29 were included in the review. These studies adopted a range of methodologies, most commonly randomised control trials, qualitative interviews and surveys. Results from included studies were divided into themes: Interventions to improve identification of mental health disorders, Interventions to support GPs, Therapeutic interventions, Telemedicine Interventions and Barriers and Facilitators to Intervention Implementation. Outcome measures reported included the Seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), the Nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the ‘The Patient Global Impression of Change Scale’.
With increasing recognition of the mental health sequelae of COVID-19, there is a lack of large scale trials researching the acceptability or effectiveness of general practice interventions. Furthermore there is a lack of research regarding possible biological interventions (psychiatric medications) for mental health problems arising from the pandemic.
Disability awareness training is mandated by the United Nations Convention on People with Disabilities (UNCRPD), but there is a paucity of evidence regarding the systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of such training. This study describes the evaluation of a pilot intellectual disability awareness programme for law enforcement officers (LEOs) in Ireland.
Pre-and post-training Likert scales and a semi-structured survey were used to evaluate the effectiveness of an intellectual disabilities awareness programme delivered to LEOs. Quantitative differences in Likert scores and thematic analyses of practice-based responses were used in evaluation.
Twenty-two LEOs participated in the training and 11 completed the evaluation cycle. Statistically significant improvements were found in participants’ self-rated knowledge of intellectual disability, their understanding of the challenges faced by people with intellectual disabilities in law enforcement interactions, their communication skills and their knowledge of how to approach a person with a disability in crisis. Thematic analysis excavated potential practical application of learning around pre-arrest considerations, recognition of disability, communication skills and need for procedural safeguards.
An approach grounded in the views of people with intellectual disabilities and with emphasis on recognition of disability, communication, accessibility of information and providing appropriate support in custody, appears to promote improvement in self-reported knowledge and prospective application in LEOs. The findings of this study are potentially applicable to countries that have ratified the UNCRPD.
Violence perpetrated by psychiatric inpatients is associated with modifiable factors. Current structured approaches to assess inpatient violence risk lack predictive validity and linkage to interventions.
Adult psychiatric inpatients on forensic and general wards in three psychiatric hospitals were recruited and followed up prospectively for 6 months. Information on modifiable (dynamic) risk factors were collected every 1–4 weeks, and baseline background factors. Data were transferred to a web-based monitoring system (FOxWeb) to calculate a total dynamic risk score. Outcomes were extracted from an incident-reporting system recording aggression and interpersonal violence. The association between total dynamic score and violent incidents was assessed by multilevel logistic regression and compared with dynamic score excluded.
We recruited 89 patients and conducted 624 separate assessments (median 5/patient). Mean age was 39 (s.d. 12.5) years with 20% (n = 18) female. Common diagnoses were schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (70%, n = 62) and personality disorders (20%, n = 18). There were 93 violent incidents. Factors contributing to violence risk were a total dynamic score of ⩾1 (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.25–9.20), 10-year increase in age (OR 0.67, 0.47–0.96), and female sex (OR 2.78, 1.04–7.40). Non-significant associations with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder were found (OR 0.50, 0.20–1.21). In a fixed-effect model using all covariates, AUC was 0.77 (0.72–0.82) and 0.75 (0.70–0.80) when the dynamic score was excluded.
In predicting violence risk in individuals with psychiatric disorders, modifiable factors added little incremental value beyond static ones in a psychiatric inpatient setting. Future work should make a clear distinction between risk factors that assist in prediction and those linked to needs.
To investigate the frequency, characteristics and impact of death threats by patients towards psychiatrists.
A cross-sectional survey of psychiatrists (n = 60) was undertaken to investigate the frequency, characteristics and impact of death threats by patients in one Irish healthcare region serving a mixed urban–rural population of 470,000.
Forty-nine responses (82%) were received. Thirty-one per cent of respondents experienced death threats by patients during their careers. Victims were more likely to be male and in a consultant role. Patients making the threats were more likely to be males aged 30–60 with a history of violence and diagnosis of personality disorder and/or substance misuse. A majority of threats occurred in outpatient settings and identified a specific method of killing, usually by stabbing. Prosecution of the perpetrator was uncommon. Of the victimised psychiatrists, 53% reported that such threats affected their personal lives, and 67% believed their professional lives were impacted. In half of the incidents, there were adverse incidents subsequent to the threats, involving either the patient or the clinician.
Death threats by patients have significant psychological and professional impacts on psychiatrists. Early liaison with employers and police and transferring the care of the patient to another clinician may be useful measures.
Capacity legislation in Ireland is evolving. The Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Act 2015 has been passed into law, but its main provisions are yet to be commenced. This paper compares the law and its practical implications currently and under the new legislation. Quick reference algorithms for frontline clinicians are proposed.
Epilepsy and mental illness have a bidirectional association. Psychiatrists are likely to encounter epilepsy as comorbidity. Seizures may present as mental illness. Equally, the management of psychiatric conditions has the potential to destabilise epilepsy. There is a need for structured epilepsy awareness and training amongst psychiatrists. This paper outlines key considerations around diagnosis, treatment and risk while suggesting practical recommendations.
Ollie White, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Mental Health Foundation Trust,
Gautam Gulati, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust,
Ratna Ghosh, Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust
This audit is not service-specific and spans all directorates where psychiatric trainees work.
Safety for psychiatric trainees is a key indicator in the quality assurance of a training scheme. This has repeatedly been emphasised as an important issue by the Royal College of Psychiatrists (1999, 2006, 2008) and in recent psychiatric literature (Dibben et al, 2008).
Standards were obtained from the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Council Report 134, Safety for Psychiatrists (2006). This augments the previous Royal College of Psychiatrists Council Report 78, Safety for Trainees in Psychiatry (1999). The following standards were of particular relevance:
ᐅ induction and safety training (e.g. de-escalation and breakaway)
ᐅ use of an alarm system
ᐅ lone-worker policy
ᐅ guidance/debriefing in the event of an assault
ᐅ environmental safety aspects of interview rooms (e.g. panic buttons, door opening outwards, inspection windows)
ᐅ safety of on-call accommodation.
As the above standards should be met for all trainees, it was necessary to identify all trainees within a programme. This can be done by contacting the relevant medical staffing department or medical education department.
A survey was developed with the aim of obtaining information directly from trainees about whether standards were being met, including the opportunity for trainees to comment about the reasons why standards were not met.
In order to obtain the highest possible response rate and ensure ease of distribution, a web-based survey tool was used. The survey could then be sent electronically to all trainees within the programme. Alternatively, postal questionnaires may be sent.
It is likely to be necessary to send email or written reminders to help ensure a high response rate.
Responses were analysed not only for the extent to which criteria were being met, but also for the stated reasons given by trainees as to why criteria were not met in their particular situations. Sub-analyses examined specific clinical situations where the meeting of standards varied. Examples included in-hours compared with out-of-hours working, and prison settings compared with outpatient settings.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.