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The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is documented as a major pest on soybean. It was reported that whitefly response towards its hosts and their cultivars varies, and is mediated through various host-related factors. Considering the significance of leaf morphological characteristics in influencing the host–whitefly responses, the present investigation was conducted in screen-house conditions to study the prevailing variations in leaf morphological characteristics of soybean genotypes and their role in governing the adult whitefly attractiveness and oviposition preference. In the multiple-choice test, the whitefly population (eggs, nymphs and adults) was found to be lowest in moderately resistant genotypes (SL 1028 and SL 1074) compared to highly susceptible (DS 3105) and susceptible genotypes (SL 688, SL 958 and SL 1113). The foliar trichomes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and leaf area, leaf lamina thickness and leaf shape data were acquired using standard procedures. To determine the factors involved in the resistance/susceptible responses towards whitefly, Pearson correlation was applied between the morphological characteristics and the whitefly population. The results show that the leaf area, trichome density, trichome length and trichome angle showed a significant positive correlation with the whitefly population, whereas leaf lamina thickness was negatively correlated. Thus, for developing whitefly-resistant germplasm, breeders should choose genotypes having narrow and thick leaves with sparse, short and flat trichomes.
This overview of the well-documented, ~ 11,200 km2 Kosi megafan updates many aspects of its geomorphology, and maps the detail of its modern trunk channel. The axis of the Kosi megafan is orthogonal to the Himalaya and Ganga trunk river, but with a mean annual flow of 52 × 109 m3 it has constructed a relatively small megafan (~150 km long) constricted between neighbouring megafans and the Ganga floodplain. However, while the coarser sediment load of other megafans farther to the west, such as the Gandak, has been trapped upstream in piggyback basins of the Terai belt, this upstream filter does not exist in the case of the Kosi River. Consequences for the Kosi channel are thought to be a more continuous supply of sediment, a higher proportion of coarse debris, higher rates of bed aggradation, and a more avulsive style of river behaviour on the megafan. Extensive construction of artificial levees, initially designed to mitigate the hazards arising from excessive flooding, has accelerated natural rates of channel aggradation – thereby raising the channel bed in several reaches and resulting in more frequent levee breaching and flood-related damage than on other Himalayan megafans.
The consequences of colonization have been linked to dehumanizing effects on a given people, but they can also be linked to a discourse that favors “depletion” of natural resources as their “utilization.” This article examines colonization as a subtle process of cultural devastation and ecological hegemony in the light of the memoir Unbowed by the late Nobel laureate from Africa, Wangari Maathai. 1Apart from framing the entire discussion with regard to the impact of colonization on environmental degradation, it also provides a glimpse into Maathai's life and works. We have attempted to analyze her thoughts and the efforts shared in her autobiography regarding the conservation of nature and natural resources, from her experiences stretching from the colonial to the postcolonial era.
Eggnog, a dairy-based beverage, comprises both milk and egg proteins. We aimed at optimizing the eggnog formulation using Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology. The combined effects of milk (60–75), cream (25–35) and eggnog base (6–8, all three as g 100/ml) were investigated on heat coagulation time, viscosity and thermal gelation temperature. ANOVA indicated that experimental data were well explained by a quadratic model with high check values (R2 > 0.94) and non-significant lack of fit tests. Based on the responses, an optimized formulation of eggnog with 60.0 milk, 25.0 cream and 6.50 eggnog base (as g 100/ml), could be considered best for manufacturing eggnog with desired attributes. This optimized formulation was characterized for physico-chemical, microbial and sensory attributes and the results indicated significantly higher fat and protein content than control formulation, but lesser lactose and total sugar content. Significantly higher viscosity, heat stability and lower thermal gelation temperature were also observed for the optimized formulation. Coliform, yeast and mold, E. coli and Salmonella counts were not detected in any sample but a significantly lower total plate count was observed for the optimized formulation.
Sustainability of maize production systems is threatened by poor economic returns and resource intensiveness. Therefore, an experiment was conducted at the ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during 2016–17 to 2017–18 to assess the effect of tillage and microbial inoculantsintegrated phosphorus (P) management on productivity, quality, economic outcome and energy dynamics of maize. Three tillage practices viz., CT–R (conventional tillage with no residue), ZT–R (zero tillage with no residue) and ZT + R (zero tillage with wheat crop residue at 2.5 Mg/ha) were assigned in main plots and five P management practices viz., P1 (control–NK as per recommendation, but no P), P2 (17.2 kg P/ha), P3 (17.2 kg P/ha + PSB), P4 (17.2 kg P/ha + compost inoculants) and P5 (34.4 kg P/ha) were allocated in subplots in three times replicated split-plot design. The maximum grain yield (5.96 Mg/ha), protein content (9.13%), protein yield (546 kg/ha) and gross energy returns (209 × 103 MJ/ha) were recorded under ZT + R while higher benefit: cost ratio (B: C ratio – the amount of economic gain per unit investment) (1.53) and energy efficiency (12.5) was noticed under ZT–R. Among the P management practices, the application of 34.4 kg P/ha recorded the highest grain yield (6.45 Mg/ha), protein content (9.34%), protein yield (603 kg/ha), B: C ratio (1.65) and energy efficiency (10.1). The results suggested that the application of P at the rate of 34.4 kg/ha under ZT + R is an economically robust approach for the quality maize production in semi-arid region.
The work presented in this research communication was carried out to prepare low calorie synbiotic milk beverage by optimizing water and sugar level and to investigate the effect on its storage ability of different packaging materials (polypropylene, high impact polystyrene, high-density polyethylene and glass). Addition of both water and sugar significantly (P < 0.05) affected the viscosity, probiotic count and sensory properties. Based on the findings, 40% water and 8% sugar level were optimized for the preparation of the beverage. Apparent viscosity and acidity increased whilst pH and probiotic counts declined during storage, irrespective of packaging materials. The prepared beverage remained most acceptable at refrigeration temperature up to a period of 15 and 12 d when packaged in glass and high impact polystyrene, respectively. Furthermore, it retained a minimum recommended level of probiotic (7 log cfu/ml) during storage for 15 d at 4 °C.
We report a familial cluster of 24 individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The index case had a travel history and spent 24 days in the house before being tested and was asymptomatic. Physical overcrowding in the house provided a favourable environment for intra-cluster infection transmission. Restriction of movement of family members due to countrywide lockdown limited the spread in community. Among the infected, only four individuals developed symptoms. The complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 was retrieved using next-generation sequencing from eight clinical samples which demonstrated a 99.99% similarity with reference to Wuhan strain and the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a distinct cluster, lying in the B.6.6 pangolin lineage.
Pulmonary valve endocarditis after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation has been an emerging concern due to the increasing prevalence of transcatheter placement of pulmonary valve in the treatment of residual right ventricular outflow tract stenosis or regurgitation. Pulmonary valve endocarditis is a dreadful complication of transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation that have been reported with Melody valve (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) and Edward Sapien valve (Edwards Life Sciences, Irvine, CA) till date. There are scanty available literatures for pulmonary valve endocarditis with Venus P valve (Venus Medtech, Hangzhou, China) implantation. Furthermore, cardiovascular comorbidity is common in COVID-19 infection with limited evidence of COVID-19 infection concomitant with infective endocarditis. This case happens to be the first reported case of infective endocarditis of pulmonary valve with concomitant COVID-19 infection and also delayed presentation of pulmonary valve endocarditis with Venus P valve implantation.
To study the total goitre rate (TGR), urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and salt iodine content among schoolchildren in a previously endemic area for severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD).
Cross-sectional epidemiological study.
The study was carried out in the Gonda district (sub-Himalayan region) of North India.
Nine hundred and seventy-seven schoolchildren (6–12 years) were studied for parameters such as height, weight, UIC and salt iodine content. Thyroid volume (TV) was measured by ultrasonography to estimate TGR.
The overall TGR in the study population was 2·8 % (95 % CI 1·8, 3·8). No significant difference in TGR was observed between boys and girls (3·5 % v. 1·9 %, P = 0·2). There was a non-significant trend of increasing TGR with age (P = 0·05). Median UIC was 157·1 μg/l (interquartile range: 94·5–244·9). At the time of the study, 97 % of salt sample were iodised and nearly 86 % of salt samples had iodine content higher than or equal to 15 part per million. Overall, TGR was significantly lower (2·8 % v. 31·0 %, P < 0·001), and median UIC was significantly higher (157·1 v. 100·0 μg/l, P < 0·05) than that reported in the same area in 2009.
A marked improvement was seen in overall iodine nutrition in the Gonda district after three and a half decades of Universal Salt Iodisation (USI). To sustainably control IDD, USI and other programmes, such as health education, must be continuously implemented along with putting mechanisms to monitor the programme at regular intervals in place.
Congenital heart block is a rare and lethal condition in paediatric population associated with maternal connective tissue disorders and rarely with structural cardiac disease like atrioventricular canal defects with or without left isomerism and congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries. Pacing in neonate if indicated is generally accomplished by epicardial pacing systems. However, in cases of significant bradycardia and haemodynamic instability, temporary pacemaker implantation via transvenous approach remains as a suitable option. Despite the advances in percutaneous catheter interventions, use of transvenous pacing in newborn is extremely challenging due to inadvertent risk of vessel injury, thrombus formation and mortality, and most of the time technical inability to place the lead within the right ventricular cavity. We report a case of congenital complete atrioventricular block in a premature male with birth weight of 1.51 kg who was managed with temporary pacemaker implantation through umbilical vein.
We investigate two-dimensional shallow granular flows on a rotating and gravitating elliptical body. This is motivated by regolith flow on small planetary bodies – also called minor planets – which is influenced by the rotation of the body, as well as its irregular topography and complex gravity field. Governing equations are obtained in an elliptic coordinate system attached to the body by extending the framework employed for terrestrial avalanches to incorporate effects of rotation, varying gravity and a curvilinear surface. Additionally, we introduce criteria to monitor grain shedding and to track flow initiation and cessation. We delineate different types of regolith motion that are governed by the rotation rate and surface roughness of the body. We find that grains migrate towards the minor and major axis of the body at low and high rotation rates, respectively. Grains are shed when the basal pressure vanishes, and shedding is encouraged by Coriolis effects during prograde flow. We observe the coexistence of regions of static and mobile regolith and their reorganization owing to the merging or division of flows. We also probe the formation and destruction of dunes – bulges arising from local grain accumulation – and find several aspects of their motion to be different from terrestrial situations. We then perform discrete element simulations that display a good match with theoretical predictions. Finally, we consider the evolution of a bi-disperse regolith. We find that big and small grains occupy, respectively, the top and bottom of the dunes formed on the surface, which is reminiscent of observations on asteroids like Itokawa.
Dispersion of droplets in an emulsion is commonly seen in several chemical, pharmaceutical and petroleum industries. Electric field has been shown to affect the stability of these dispersions. We study the dynamics of a pair of leaky dielectric droplets in a leaky dielectric liquid in the presence of an externally applied electric field. A pair of droplets may coalesce or repel each other in the presence of an electric field. Interactions between a pair of drops have been shown to be governed by the ratio $\varepsilon _r/\sigma _r$, where $\varepsilon _r$ and $\sigma _r$ are the ratios of drop to ambient fluid electric permittivities and conductivities, respectively. When inertia is neglected, the droplets approach each other if $\varepsilon _r/\sigma _r > 1$, whereas droplets repel when $\varepsilon _r/\sigma _r < 1$. However, inclusion of inertia permits interesting transient behaviour, where the droplets may attract due to the electrostatic dipole–dipole attraction even for $\varepsilon _r/\sigma _r < 1$. The approach velocity then is governed by the electrostatic forces and varies as $1/h^4$, where $h$ is the separation distance between the droplets, in contrast to being hydrodynamically driven as predicted in the Stokes flow limit by Baygents et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 368, 1998, pp. 359–375). For compound droplets, interactions between droplets are essentially governed by the electrical properties of the outer droplet and the ambient fluid. However, transient dynamics may also result in the breakup of a compound droplet and lead to formation of single droplets.
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major global threat to patient safety. Systematic surveillance is crucial for understanding HAI rates and antimicrobial resistance trends and to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) activities based on local epidemiology. In India, no standardized national HAI surveillance system was in place before 2017. Methods: Public and private hospitals from across 21 states in India were recruited to participate in an HAI surveillance network. Baseline assessments followed by trainings ensured that basic microbiology and IPC implementation capacity existed at all sites. Standardized surveillance protocols for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) were modified from the NHSN for the Indian context. IPC nurses were trained to implement surveillance protocols. Data were reported through a locally developed web portal. Standardized external data quality checks were performed to assure data quality. Results: Between May 2017 and April 2019, 109 ICUs from 37 hospitals (29 public and 8 private) enrolled in the network, of which 33 were teaching hospitals with >500 beds. The network recorded 679,109 patient days, 212,081 central-line days, and 387,092 urinary catheter days. Overall, 4,301 bloodstream infection (BSI) events and 1,402 urinary tract infection (UTI) events were reported. The network CLABSI rate was 9.4 per 1,000 central-line days and the CAUTI rate was 3.4 per 1,000 catheter days. The central-line utilization ratio was 0.31 and the urinary catheter utilization ratio was 0.57. Moreover, 3,542 (73%) of 4,742 pathogens reported from BSIs and 868 (53%) of 1,644 pathogens reported from UTIs were gram negative. Also, 1,680 (26.3%) of all 6,386 pathogens reported were Enterobacteriaceae. Of 1,486 Enterobacteriaceae with complete antibiotic susceptibility testing data reported, 832 (57%) were carbapenem resistant. Of 951 Enterobacteriaceae subjected to colistin broth microdilution testing, 62 (7%) were colistin resistant. The surveillance platform identified 2 separate hospital-level HAI outbreaks; one caused by colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae and another due to Burkholderia cepacia. Phased expansion of surveillance to additional hospitals continues. Conclusions: HAI surveillance was successfully implemented across a national network of diverse hospitals using modified NHSN protocols. Surveillance data are being used to understand HAI burden and trends at the facility and national levels, to inform public policy, and to direct efforts to implement effective hospital IPC activities. This network approach to HAI surveillance may provide lessons to other countries or contexts with limited surveillance capacity.
Tricuspid valve atresia with severe pulmonary stenosis is one of the common cyanotic diseases in neonate. Child can succumb due to profound cyanosis and arterial hypoxaemia after closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Evolving procedure of right ventricular outflow tract stenting may be considered as a palliative procedure in such vulnerable group, destined for a later definitive management. The right ventricular outflow tract stenting is described essentially for tetralogy of Fallot physiology with a catheter course across tricuspid valve. We describe a case of successful right ventricular outflow tract stenting in a 5-day-old symptomatic neonate. We discuss the possible routes and the tips to facilitate right ventricular outflow tract stenting in such a case. This happens to be the first reported case description with successful stenting of neonate with tricuspid atresia with critical pulmonic stenosis.
A trauma registry is a disease-specific data collection composed of a file of uniform data elements that describe the injury even, demographics, prehospital information, diagnosis, care, outcomes, and costs of treatment for injured patients.
To establish a trauma registry system on an electronic platform enabling data capturing through Android phones.
A software has been developed for the registry data collection for road traffic injury patients arriving at JPNATC, AIIMS, New Delhi. The software has been designed to use in the Emergency Department on Android phones/laptops with internet access.
A detailed registry data set has been prepared to enter prehospital, in-hospital, and post-discharge details of all the admitted patients. This includes demographic data, prehospital data, injury event data, vital signs within 24-hrs of arrival, ED disposition (date and time), operative procedures within 48 hours of arrival, chest x-ray (date and time), CT (date and time), ventilation days, ICU-stay days, hospital disposition (date and time), injury coding data (region, severity level, ISS, AIS, ICD-10) and Others, e.g., first neurosurgical consultation (date and time) and first blood transfusion (date and time). There are two panels for this software; one for user panel and another for the administrative panel. User panel is being used for data collection by the trained data collectors 24/7 at the emergency department on a rotation basis. The administrative panel is accessible to only the investigator or other authorized persons. The administrative panel and user panels are password protected. The entered data is being saved in a spreadsheet in the backend and can be used for periodic data quality check and data analysis.
There is no trauma registry in India so far for the road traffic injury patients. Present innovation would lay the foundation of national Trauma Registry in India.
This study’s objective was to explore the disaster management knowledge, attitude, behavior, willingness, and assistance among Nigerian dentists.
This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted in Edo State (Nigeria) among selected Nigerian dentists that attended the Annual Scientific Conference of School of Dentistry, University of Benin (Benin City, Nigeria) between 2016 and 2017. The 54-item, modified Chhabra, et al disaster management questionnaire, which elicited information on demographic characteristics, disaster management knowledge, attitude, preparedness, and willingness, was the data collection tool.
A total of 126 dentists participated in the study, giving a 68.1% retrieval rate. The willingness to render assistance in the case of disaster among the participants was 95.2%. More than three-quarters (81.0%) reported that they had not received any disaster management training and 92.9% reported that they were not familiar with any government paper on response to disaster. The mean disaster management knowledge and attitude scores were 16.95 (SD = 0.40) and 34.62 (SD = 0.56), respectively. Disaster management knowledge had positive significant correlation with attitude and behavior. The disaster management attitude had positive significant correlation with behavior and negative significant correlation with preparedness. Disaster management behavior had positive significant correlation with preparedness and willingness to render assistance. Willingness to render assistance had significant correlation with preparedness.
Data from this study revealed high-level of willingness to render assistance in disaster, high disaster management attitude, but with low disaster management knowledge, behavior, and preparedness. The significant correlation between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and preparedness implies that training will offer immense benefit.
Odai ED, Azodo CC, Chhabra KG. Disaster management: knowledge, attitude, behavior, willingness, and preparedness among Nigerian dentists. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):132–136
The heat transfer properties of the organic molecular crystal α-RDX were studied using three phonon scattering based thermal conductivity models. It was found that the widely used Peierls-Boltzmann model for thermal transport in crystalline materials breaks down for α-RDX. We show this breakdown is due to a large degree of anharmonicity that leads to a dominance of diffusive-like carriers. Despite being developed for disordered systems, the Allen-Feldman theory for thermal conductivity actually gives the best description of thermal transport. This is likely because diffusive carriers contribute to over 95% of the thermal conductivity in α-RDX. The dominance of diffusive carriers is larger than previously observed in other fully ordered crystalline systems. These results indicate that van der Waals bonded organic crystalline solids conduct heat in a manner more akin to amorphous materials than simple atomic crystals.