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This paper investigates how the numerosity bias influences individuals’ allocation of resources between themselves and others, using the backdrop of the traditional dictator game. Across four studies including both hypothetical and real exchanges of money, we show that the form of the numerical value representing the quantity of the resource (e.g., $20 vs 2000 cents) systematically biases the decision-maker to perceive the quantity s/he is thinking of allocating as being “less than adequate” or “more than adequate”. Essentially, such a biased perception of adequacy with respect to the quantity of the resource consequently influences the decision-maker’s final allocation decision. We attribute this systematic bias to the “numerosity” of the resource. We find that bigger numerical values representing quantity (e.g., 2000 cents) bias decision-makers to over-infer the quantity, thus inducing them to allocate less to the entities they are focusing on.
We focus on the everyday decision making challenges faced by high functioning adults across the Autism Spectrum using both between- and within-group comparisons. We used Mturk, backed by a combination of recruiting and screening procedures, to recruit large samples using an online survey. The main differences between groups were: greater relationship problems at home, school and work for the ASD group compared to the control group; greater difficulty in a variety of everyday decisions and the negative consequences of their decisions; greater aversion to social risks; lower levels of Rational Ability; and greater personal endorsement of socially undesirable acts. Poorer decision outcomes within the ASD group were predicted by lower levels of Rational Ability and higher personal endorsement of socially undesirable acts. Some of the same predictor-outcome relations were found within the Control group. These results illustrate how the study of unique groups can increase our overall understanding of individual differences in decision making within the general population, and the need to include both between-group and within-group analyses.
In this article, a meander line-shaped pentaband (2.18–2.24, 2.38–2.46, 2.65–2.70, 3.10–3.32, 3.38–3.46 GHz) four-element multiple-input–multiple-output antenna is presented. The proposed antenna is also circularly polarized in two bands (at 2.2 and 2.4 GHz) with dual-polarization like right-handed at port 1 or 3 and left-handed at port 2 or 4, which is widely used for mobile satellite services (MSS) and Internet of Things applications. This antenna is designed and fabricated with compact size 50 × 70 × 1.6 mm3 on the FR-4 substrate with good diversity performance in pentaband. Simulated results of antenna-like return loss, isolation, and parameters-related diversity have also been tested experimentally in a controlled environment, which is within the permissible limit. The designed antenna will be appropriate for MSS, industrial scientific and medical (ISM), broadband radio services and educational broadband services, WiMAX radio location services, and amateur radio services. Meanwhile, specific absorption rate of the designed antenna has been examined in an empirical environment for the Fresnel radiating near-field applications.
In this paper, a ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter with stopband characteristics is presented using a multi-mode resonator (MMR) technique. An MMR is formed by loading three dumbbell-shaped (Mickey and circular) shunt stubs placed in the center and two symmetrical locations from ports, respectively. Three circular and arrowhead defected ground structures on the ground plane are introduced to achieve UWB bandwidth with a better roll-off rate. The proposed filter exhibits stopband characteristics from 10.8 to 20 GHz with a 0.4 dB return loss. The group delay and roll-off rate of the designed filter are <0.30 ns in the passband and 16 dB/GHz at lower and higher cut-off frequencies, respectively. The dimension of the filter is 0.74λg × 0.67λg mm2 and was fabricated on a cost-effective substrate. All simulated results are verified through the experimental results.
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major global threat to patient safety. Systematic surveillance is crucial for understanding HAI rates and antimicrobial resistance trends and to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) activities based on local epidemiology. In India, no standardized national HAI surveillance system was in place before 2017. Methods: Public and private hospitals from across 21 states in India were recruited to participate in an HAI surveillance network. Baseline assessments followed by trainings ensured that basic microbiology and IPC implementation capacity existed at all sites. Standardized surveillance protocols for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) were modified from the NHSN for the Indian context. IPC nurses were trained to implement surveillance protocols. Data were reported through a locally developed web portal. Standardized external data quality checks were performed to assure data quality. Results: Between May 2017 and April 2019, 109 ICUs from 37 hospitals (29 public and 8 private) enrolled in the network, of which 33 were teaching hospitals with >500 beds. The network recorded 679,109 patient days, 212,081 central-line days, and 387,092 urinary catheter days. Overall, 4,301 bloodstream infection (BSI) events and 1,402 urinary tract infection (UTI) events were reported. The network CLABSI rate was 9.4 per 1,000 central-line days and the CAUTI rate was 3.4 per 1,000 catheter days. The central-line utilization ratio was 0.31 and the urinary catheter utilization ratio was 0.57. Moreover, 3,542 (73%) of 4,742 pathogens reported from BSIs and 868 (53%) of 1,644 pathogens reported from UTIs were gram negative. Also, 1,680 (26.3%) of all 6,386 pathogens reported were Enterobacteriaceae. Of 1,486 Enterobacteriaceae with complete antibiotic susceptibility testing data reported, 832 (57%) were carbapenem resistant. Of 951 Enterobacteriaceae subjected to colistin broth microdilution testing, 62 (7%) were colistin resistant. The surveillance platform identified 2 separate hospital-level HAI outbreaks; one caused by colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae and another due to Burkholderia cepacia. Phased expansion of surveillance to additional hospitals continues. Conclusions: HAI surveillance was successfully implemented across a national network of diverse hospitals using modified NHSN protocols. Surveillance data are being used to understand HAI burden and trends at the facility and national levels, to inform public policy, and to direct efforts to implement effective hospital IPC activities. This network approach to HAI surveillance may provide lessons to other countries or contexts with limited surveillance capacity.
To assess trends of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examination pass rates before and after the 2003 duty hours regulations (DHR). We obtained the pass rates for part I and II for years 2000–2010. Data were divided pre-DHR (2000–2003) and post-DHR (2007–2010).
During the pre-DHR period, first- and multiple-attempt group pass rates were 80.7% and 39.0% which changed in the post-DHR period to 89.7% and 39.1% respectively. Similarly for the part II exam, the pre-DHR first- and multiple-attempt group pass rates were 60.2% and 43.5% respectively, which increased to 78.7% and 53.8%, among the post-DHR group. Overall, there was a significant increase in the first-attempt candidates pass rates for parts I and II, whereas multiple-attempt candidates did not benefit as strongly.
The results suggest that the 2003 DHR may have had a positive impact on examination-based medical knowledge in psychiatry.
Undernutrition is common in surgical patients, is frequently unrecognised and is strongly associated with adverse outcomes such as high rates of complications and mortality, worsening functional status and prolonged hospitalisation. Owing to the associated infection and symptoms such as repeated vomiting, a high prevalence of undernutrition is expected in hydrocephalus patients, which may contribute to their poor surgical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of preoperative nutritional status on the outcome of Indian patients with hydrocephalus undergoing neurosurgical shunt surgery. One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients undergoing scheduled hydrocephalus shunt surgery were studied prospectively. All patients underwent nutritional screening according to different parameters prior to surgery. The patients were classified into normally nourished and undernourished groups. The undernourished group was further subdivided into moderately and severely undernourished. The surgical outcome was compared between these groups. A high prevalence (53 %) of undernutrition was observed in these patients. Postoperative complications such as shunt infection (P = 0·0023), shunt revision (P = 0·0074) and mortality (P = 0·0003) were significantly more common in undernourished patients compared with normally nourished patients. Serum albumin emerged as the most significant independent predictor of postoperative mortality. The present study demonstrated a high prevalence of undernutrition in hydrocephalus patients in India and its adverse influence on the outcome of shunt surgery. Early preoperative nutritional status screening and its optimisation may decrease the morbidity and mortality of shunt surgery for hydrocephalus.
Anthropometric parameters and catch-up growth were prospectively evaluated in fifty late-diagnosed children with coeliac disease aged 2·25–10 years after 1–4 years of adhering to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). The anthropometric parameters were expressed as Z scores relative to National Centre for Health Statistics standards using Epi Info 2000 (weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) and height-for-age Z score (HAZ)). Catch-up growth was evaluated by repeated measures. ANOVA, overall significance by an F test and pair-wise comparisons for estimated marginal means using the least significant difference. At the time of enrolment, no significant difference was observed in WHZ and HAZ between children diagnosed before (group 1) or after (group 2) 4 years of age. On follow-up, HAZ was significantly higher in group 1 after the first and third years of the GFD (P=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with a non-significant increase after completing 4 years of the GFD (P=0·22). Feeding the GFD resulted in an overall significant (F=3·99, P=0·011) increase in HAZ up to 4 years of follow-up. However, the catch-up in height was incomplete, with stunting in sixteen (55·4 %) of twenty-nine children after 3 years and in seven (46·6 %) of fifteen children after 4 years on the GFD. Pair-wise comparisons demonstrated a linear catch-up growth during the initial follow-up on GFD. Treatment with the GFD did not result in an overall significant increase in WHZ up to 4 years of follow-up (F=1·01, P=0·42). Our results suggest that, in children with late-diagnosed coeliac disease, treatment with a GFD leads to a normalisation of body mass and a significant but incomplete recovery in HAZ during 4 years of follow-up.
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