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Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic severely affected Southeast Asia, with >35 million cases and ~360,000 deaths. Despite relatively low rates of secondary bacterial infection among inpatients with COVID-19, several countries reported increased antibiotic use; raising concerns for worsening antimicrobial resistance. We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of antibiotics commonly used to treat respiratory infections in Southeast Asia. Methods: We evaluated intravenous antibiotic use among hospitalized adults in acute-care wards in 6 hospitals; 3 in Indonesia and 3 in the Philippines. We abstracted data on antibiotics that are commonly used to treat respiratory infections in these hospitals. We calculated antibiotic use rates for the 25 included antibiotics as monthly defined daily dose per 1,000 patient days (or patient discharges where patient days was unavailable) using data from pharmacy dispensing records and administrative records. Median antibiotic use rates for the prepandemic period (March 2018–February 2020) and the pandemic period (March 2020–February 2021) were compared, and percentage changes were calculated for (1) all 25 antibiotics combined; (2) ceftriaxone; (3) vancomycin and linezolid combined (anti-MRSA); and (4) broad-spectrum antibiotics with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (anti-PSA). Monthly antibiotic use and COVID-19 patient discharges were graphed over the 36-month study period (March 2018–February 2021) to visualize trends (Fig. 1). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to determine whether differences in median antibiotic use rates were statistically significant (2-tailed P < .05). Results: Overall, trends in antibiotic use were higher during months with increased COVID-19 patient discharges (Fig. 1). Use of all 25 antibiotics combined significantly increased in 4 of 6 hospitals (6.9%–63.6%) during the pandemic period compared to the prepandemic period. Ceftriaxone use significantly increased in 3 of 6 hospitals (37.1%–55.4%) and decreased in 3 of 6 hospitals (15.9%–31.9%). Anti-PSA antibiotic use significantly increased in 4 of 6 hospitals (16.1%–161.5%). Although anti-MRSA antibiotic use was low (comprising <2% of the overall included antibiotic use in Indonesia and <11% in the Philippines), use during the pandemic increased in 3 of 6 hospitals (59.8%–212.6%). Conclusions: We observed substantial increases in antibiotic use among hospitalized adults in Indonesia and the Philippines during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increased use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is concerning given the potential consequence of worsening antimicrobial resistance. Understanding how increases in antibiotic use compares to rates of bacterial infection, antimicrobial resistance, and antibiotic availability and accessibility during this time is important to contextualize results. These findings reinforce the importance of antibiotic stewardship practices to optimize antibiotic use, especially during pandemics.
Background: Due to limited therapeutic options and potential for spread, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)-producing New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases (NDMs) are a public health priority. We investigated the epidemiology of NDM-producing CRE reported to the CDC to clarify its distribution and relative prevalence. Methods: The CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network supports molecular testing of CRE for 5 carbapenemases nationally. Although KPC is the most common carbapenemase in the United States, non-KPC carbapenemases are a growing concern. We analyzed CRE with any of 4 non-KPC plasmid-mediated carbapenemases (NDM, VIM, IMP, or OXA-48 type) isolated from specimens collected from January 1, 2017, through June 30, 2019; only a patient’s first isolate per organism–carbapenemase combination was included. We excluded isolates from specimen sources associated with colonization screening (eg, perirectal). We compared the proportion of NDM-producing CRE to all non-KPC–producing CP-CRE between period A (January to June 2018) and period B (January to June 2019). Health departments and the CDC collected additional exposure and molecular information in selected states to better describe current NDM-producing CRE epidemiology. Results: Overall, 47 states reported 1,013 non–KPC-producing CP-CRE (range/state, 1–109 isolates; median, 11 isolates); 46 states reported 631 NDM-producing CRE (range/state, 1–84; median, 6). NDM-producing CRE increased quarterly from the third quarter of 2018 through the second quarter of 2019; CP-CRE isolates with other non-KPC carbapenemases remained stable (Fig. 1). In period A, 124 of 216 emerging CP-CRE had NDM (57.1%), compared with 255 of 359 emerging CP-CRE (71.0%) during period B (P = .1179). Among NDM-producing CRE, the proportion of Enterobacter spp increased from 10.5% in 2018 to 18.4% in 2019 (P = .0467) (Fig. 2). In total, 18 states reported more NDM-producing CRE in the first 6 months of 2019 than in all of 2018. Connecticut, Ohio, and Oregon were among states that conducted detailed investigations; these 3 states identified 24 NDM-producing CRE isolates from 23 patients in period B. Overall, 5 (21.7%) of 22 patients with history available traveled internationally ≤12 months prior to culture; 17 (73.9%) acquired NDM-producing CRE domestically. Among 15 isolates sequenced, 8 (53.3%) carried NDM-5 (6 E. coli, 1 Enterobacter spp and 1 Klebsiella spp) and 7 (46.7%) carried NDM-1 (6 Enterobacter spp and 1 Klebsiella spp). Species were diverse; no single strain type was shared by >2 isolates. Conclusions: Detection of NDM-producing CRE has increased across the AR Lab Network. Among states with detailed information available, domestic acquisition was common, and no single variant or strain predominated. Aggressive public health response and further understanding of current US NDM-CRE epidemiology are needed to prevent further spread.
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