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Aging plays a crucial role in the mechanisms of the impacts of genetic and environmental factors on blood pressure and serum lipids. However, to our knowledge, how the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the correlation between blood pressure and serum lipids changes with age remains to be determined. In this study, data from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR) were used. Resting blood pressure, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and fasting serum lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs) were measured in 2378 participants (1189 twin pairs). Univariate and bivariate structural equation models examined the genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and serum lipids among three age groups. All phenotypes showed moderate to high heritability (0.37–0.59) and moderate unique environmental variance (0.30–0.44). The heritability of all phenotypes showed a decreasing trend with age. Among all phenotypes, SBP and DBP showed a significant monotonic decreasing trend. For phenotype-phenotype pairs, the phenotypic correlation (Rph) of each pair ranged from −0.04 to 0.23, and the additive genetic correlation (Ra) ranged from 0.00 to 0.36. For TC&SBP, TC&DBP, TG&SBP and TGs&DBP, both the Rph and Ra declined with age, and the Ra difference between the young group and the older adult group is statistically significant (p < .05). The unique environmental correlation (Re) of each pair did not follow any pattern with age and remained relatively stable with age. In summary, we observed that the heritability of blood pressure was affected by age. Moreover, blood pressure and serum lipids shared common genetic backgrounds, and age had an impact on the phenotypic correlation and genetic correlations.
It is very challenging for robots to perform grinding and polishing tasks on surfaces with unknown geometry. Most existing methods solve this problem by modeling the relationship between the force sensing information and surface normal vectors by analyzing the forces on special end tools such as spherical tools and cylindrical tools and simplified friction model. In this paper, we propose a normal vectors learning method to simultaneously control end-effector force and direction on unknown surfaces. First, the relation that mapping the force sensing information to the surface normal vectors is learned from the demonstrated data on the known plane using locally weighted regression. Next, the learned relation is used to estimate surface normal vectors on the unknown surface. To improve the force control precision on the unknown geometry surface, the adaptive force control is developed. To improve the direction control precision due to friction, the iterative learning control is developed. The proposed method is verified by comparative simulations and experiments using the Franka robot. Results show that the end-effector can be controlled perpendicular to the surface with a certain force.
Executives trade more profitably and opportunistically over the course of the tenure of independent directors (IDs). IDs’ increased connections with and hence allegiance to executives are likely the channel through which ID tenure can affect executive trading. Executive opportunism is mitigated by disciplinary factors that include the presence of a firm’s internal trading policy, blockholders, and IDs with legal expertise as well as the risk of shareholder-initiated derivative lawsuits. These results point to an association between long-tenured IDs and weakened corporate governance.
In this study, aluminium fluoride trihydrate (AlF3⋅3H2O) was used to inhibit the sintering of calcined coal-series kaolin (CCSK). In addition, the oil absorption properties of CCSK were studied. The particle-size distribution, specific surface area and porosity of the samples were investigated as a function of calcination temperature and the addition of AlF3⋅3H2O. Moreover, the ability of AlF3⋅3H2O to improve the oil absorption of CCSK was explored. The morphology, structure and phase composition of the specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The phase transition during heating of the samples was studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The preparation with 10 wt.% AlF3⋅3H2O had the optimal sintering inhibition effect on CCSK at 1000°C. The release of SiF4 gas during heating and the formation of mullite whiskers on the particle surface caused by AlF3⋅3H2O moderated the formation of molten-phase liquid bridges between particles and inhibited sintering of the raw material powder. Furthermore, the formation of submicron mullite whiskers on the surface of the CCSK particles enhanced the oil-absorption properties of the sample significantly.
It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanisms and biological pathways underlying the relationship between obesity and serum lipid levels. Structural equation models (SEMs) were constructed to calculate heritability for body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the genetic connections between BMI and the four classes of lipids using 1197 pairs of twins from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Bivariate genomewide association studies (GWAS) were performed to identify genetic variants associated with BMI and lipids using the records of 457 individuals, and the results were further validated in 289 individuals. The genetic background affecting BMI may differ by gender, and the heritability of males and females was 71% (95% CI [.66, .75]) and 39% (95% CI [.15, .71]) respectively. BMI was positively correlated with TC, TG and LDL-C in phenotypic and genetic correlation, while negatively correlated with HDL-C. There were gender differences in the correlation between BMI and lipids. Bivariate GWAS analysis and validation stage found 7 genes (LOC105378740, LINC02506, CSMD1, MELK, FAM81A, ERAL1 and MIR144) that were possibly related to BMI and lipid levels. The significant biological pathways were the regulation of cholesterol reverse transport and the regulation of high-density lipoprotein particle clearance (p < .001). BMI and blood lipid levels were affected by genetic factors, and they were genetically correlated. There might be gender differences in their genetic correlation. Bivariate GWAS analysis found MIR144 gene and its related biological pathways may influence obesity and lipid levels.
The Qieganbulake deposit associated with a mafic–ultramafic–carbonatite complex in the Kuluketage block is not only the world’s second-largest vermiculite deposit, but also a medium-size carbonatite-related phosphate deposit. Field observations, radiometric dating results and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes reveal that the parental magmas of the carbonatite and mafic–ultramafic rocks are cogenetic and formed synchronously at c. 810 Ma. Geochemical characteristics and Sr–Nd–Hf–S isotopes ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70581–0.70710; ϵNd(t) = −0.20 to −11.80; ϵHf(t) = −7.5 to −10.3; δ34S = +0.7 ‰ to +3.0 ‰ (some sulfides with high δ34S values (+3.2 to +6.6) were formed by late hydrothermal sulfur)), in combination with mineral compositions and previous research, strongly indicate that the Qieganbulake mafic–ultramafic–carbonatite complex formed via extensive crystal fractionation/cumulation and liquid immiscibility of a carbonated tholeiitic magma, possibly derived from partial melting of an enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle previously modified by slab-released fluids and sediment input in a continental rift setting. The coupled enriched Sr–Nd isotopic signatures, in combination with previous research, suggest that the enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle could have been metasomatized by asthenospheric mantle melts to different degrees. The Qieganbulake carbonatite-related phosphate ores were the products of normal fractional crystallization/cumulation of P–Fe3+ complex enriched carbonatite magma in high oxygen fugacity conditions, which was generated by liquid immiscibility of CO2–Fe–Ti–P-rich residual magma undergoing high differentiation.
Biped robots with dynamic motion control have shown strong robustness in complex environments. However, many motion planning methods rely on models, which have difficulty dynamically modifying the walking cycle, height, and other gait parameters to cope with environmental changes. In this study, a heuristic model-free gait template planning method with dynamic motion control is proposed. The gait trajectory can be generated by inputting the desired speed, walking cycle, and support height without a model. Then, the stable walking of the biped robot can be realized by foothold adjustment and whole-body dynamics model control. The gait template can be changed in real time to achieve gait flexibility of the biped robot. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by simulations and experiments of the biped robot BHR-B2. The research presented here helps improve the gait transition ability of biped robots in dynamic locomotion.
The outbreak has had a devastating impact, and efforts are underway to speed up vaccination. The study’s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination clinic in the Second People’s Hospital of Fujian Province, China. Meanwhile, we monitored all the vaccine recipients to evaluate adverse reactions.
A cross-sectional study was done at the COVID-19 Vaccination Clinic, the Second People’s Hospital of Fujian Province, China. We systematically collected Clinical data from the COVID-19 vaccination clinic between March 11 and November 11, 2021, including the type of vaccine, number of doses, gender, age, educational level, occupational category, adverse reactions, etc. Investigators will contact vaccine recipients by means of phone call or WeChat message to record the negative responses. Last, this report covers data through 8 mo, so it will be better to Evaluate the Safety of 2 inactivated COVID-19 vaccines from China (BBIBP-CorV [Beijing Institute of Biological Products, Beijing, China] and CoronaVac [Sinovac Life Sciences, Beijing, China]).
The results indicated that the Second People’s Hospital of Fujian Province received a total of 64,602 COVID-19 vaccines from March 11 to November 11, 2021, including 34,331 (53.14%) first doses, 29,245 (45.27%) second doses, and 1026 (1.59%) third doses. This study found the highest proportion in other personnel (38.69% at the first dose, 38.75% at the second dose, and 2.44% at the third dose), who were mainly retirees. People with higher levels of education are more likely to be vaccinated against COVID-19 during the early stages of vaccine rollout. In terms of age stratification, the highest proportion was found among people aged 18-49 (BBIBP-CorV: first dose 61%, second dose 62.6%, and third dose 76.8%; CoronaVac: first dose 66.1%, double dose 63.6%, and third dose 75.5%), followed by those over 60. The common adverse reactions were mainly local and systemic, and there were some differences between the 2 inactivated vaccines (P < 0.05).
This is the first study to analyze the actual status of hospitals as COVID-19 vaccination clinics in China. The hospital has focused on vaccinating citizens and the initial rollout of vaccines to ensure any safety issues are identified. More citizens are willing to vaccinate in hospitals because of the uncertain safety of the available vaccines and adverse reactions. The good news is that vaccine-related severe adverse events have not been found in the hospital vaccination clinic. The Safety of BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac is relatively high.
The effects of chordwise deformation and the half-amplitude asymmetry on the hydrodynamic performance and vortex dynamics of batoid fish have been numerically investigated, in which the two parameters were represented by the wavenumber ($W$) and the ratio of the half-amplitude above the longitudinal axis to that below ($HAR$). Fin kinematics were prescribed based on biological data. Simulations were conducted using the immersed boundary method. It was found that moderate chordwise deformation enhances the thrust, saves the power and increases the efficiency. A large $HAR$ can also increase thrust performance. By using the derivative-moment transformation theory at several subdomains to capture the local vortical structures and a force decomposition, it was shown that, at high Strouhal numbers ($St$), the tip vortex is the main source of thrust, whereas the leading-edge vortex (LEV) and trailing-edge vortex weaken the thrust generation. However, at lower $St$, the LEV would enhance the thrust. The least deformation ($W=0$) leads to the largest effective angle of attack, and thus the strongest vortices. However, moderate deformation ($W=0.4$) has an optimal balance between the performance enhancement and the opposite effect of different local structures. The performance enhancement of $HAR$ was also due to the increase of the vortical contributions. This work provides a new insight into the role of vortices and the force enhancement mechanism in aquatic swimming.
This study aimed to determine the risk factors for chronic diseases and to identify the potential influencing mechanisms from the perspectives of lifestyle and dietary factors. The findings could provide updated and innovative evidence for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.
A cross-sectional study.
1005 adults from Yangpu district of Shanghai participated in the study, and responded to questions on dietary habits, lifestyle and health status.
Residents suffering from chronic diseases accounted for about 34·99 % of the respondents. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, diet quality, amount of exercise and tea drinking were related to chronic diseases. Age > 60 and overeating (Diet Balance Index total score > 0) had negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease, while overexercise (Physical Activity Index > 17·1) and tea drinking had negative multiplicative interaction and negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease. Diet quality, physical activity and tea drinking were incomplete mediators of the relationship between types of medical insurance residents participating in and chronic diseases.
The residents in Yangpu District of Shanghai have a high prevalence of chronic diseases. Strengthening access of residents to health education and interventions to prevent chronic diseases and cultivating healthy eating and exercise habits of residents are crucial. The nutritional environment of the elderly population should be considered, and the reimbursement level of different types of medical insurance should be designed reasonably to improve the accessibility of medical and health services and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
The stability of the two-layer film flow driven by an oscillatory plate under long-wave disturbances is studied. The influence of key factors, such as thickness ratio ($n$), viscosity ratio ($m$), density ratio ($r$), oscillatory frequency ($\beta$) and insoluble surfactants on the stability behaviours is studied systematically. Four special Floquet patterns are identified, and the corresponding growth rates are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem of the fourth-order matrix. A small viscosity ratio ($m\le 1$) may stabilize the flow but it depends on the thickness ratio. If the viscosity ratio is not very small ($m>0.1$), in the $(\beta ,n)$-plane, stable and unstable curved stripes appear alternately. In other words, under the circumstances, if the two-layer film flow is unstable, slightly adjusting the thickness of the upper film may make it stable. In particular, if the upper film is thin enough, even under high-frequency oscillation, the flow is always stable. The influence of density ratio is similar, i.e. there are curved stable and unstable stripes in the $(\beta ,r)$-planes. Surface surfactants generally stabilize the flow of the two-layer oscillatory membrane, while interfacial surfactants may stabilize or destabilize the flow but the effect is mild. It is also found that gravity can generally stabilize the flow because it narrows the bandwidth of unstable frequencies.
We present a theoretical study of mode evolution in high-power distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped (DSCCP) fiber amplifiers. A semi-analytical model taking the side-pumping schemes, transverse mode competition, and stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering into consideration has been built, which can model the static and dynamic mode evolution in high-power DSCCP fiber amplifiers. The mode evolution behavior has been investigated with variation of the fiber amplifier parameters, such as the pump power distribution, the length of the DSCCP fiber, the averaged coupling coefficient, the number of the pump cores and the arrangement of the pump cores. Interestingly, it revealed that static mode evolution induced by transverse mode competition is different from the dynamic evolution induced by stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering. This shows that the high-order mode experiences a slightly higher gain in DSCCP fiber amplifiers, but the mode instability thresholds for DSCCP fiber amplifiers are higher than those for their end-coupled counterparts. By increasing the pump core number and reducing the averaged coupling coefficient, the mode instability threshold can be increased, which indicates that DSCCP fibers can provide additional mitigation strategies of dynamic mode instability.
The conventional product of exponentials
-based methods dissatisfy the parametric minimality for the kinematic calibration of serial robots due to overlooking the magnitude and pitch constraints. Thus, the minimal kinematic model is presented to solve this problem, which can be developed further. This paper puts forward an improved algorithm for the minimal parameter calibration. An actual kinematic model with the minimal parameters
is constructed according to the geometric properties of actual joint twists in the auxiliary frames established on the basis of the nominal joint axes. Then, the initial pose error is defined in the tool coordinate frame, which is expressed as the exponential map of the twist, and all twist descriptions are unified, so as to give a unified kinematic model in mathematics. By differentiating the kinematic model, a minimal error model is derived in explicit form. Subsequently, we propose a novel parameter identification method, which identifies the orientation error and position error parameters separately by the iterative least-squares method and updates the MP uniformly. Finally, the simulations and experiments on the different serial robots are conducted to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show our calibration algorithm outperforms the existing ones in the accuracy aspect, and the experiment result shows that the absolute pose accuracy of the UR5 industrial robot is upgraded about 9 times under a statistics sense after the calibration.
The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1–2 years), preschool (3–5 years), primary or elementary school (6–11 years), and adolescence (10–18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0–18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous syndrome. Identifying discrete subtypes of illness with distinguishing neurobiological substrates and clinical features is a promising strategy for guiding personalised therapeutics.
This study aimed to identify depression subtypes with correlated patterns of functional network connectivity and clinical symptoms by clustering patients according to a weighted linear combination of both features in a relatively large, medication-naïve depression sample.
We recruited 115 medication-naïve adults with MDD and 129 matched healthy controls, and evaluated all participants with magnetic resonance imaging. We used regularised canonical correlation analysis to identify component mapping relationships between functional network connectivity and symptom profiles, and K-means clustering was used to define distinct subtypes of patients.
Two subtypes of MDD were identified: insomnia-dominated subtype 1 and anhedonia-dominated subtype 2. Subtype 1 was characterised by abnormal hyperconnectivity within the ventral attention network and sleep maintenance insomnia. Subtype 2 was characterised by abnormal hypoconnectivity in the subcortical and dorsal attention networks, and prominent anhedonia symptoms.
Our study identified two distinct subtypes of patients with specific neurobiological and clinical symptom profiles. These findings advance understanding of the biological and clinical heterogeneity of MDD, offering a pathway for defining categorical subtypes of illness via consideration of both biological and clinical features.
The objective of this study was to investigate how different obesity measures link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on follow-up survey data at the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), which was conducted in four areas of China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Sichuan) in 2013. The survey collected detailed questionnaire information and conducted physical examinations, fasting blood sampling and untargeted metabolomic measurements among 439 adult twins. Linear regression models and bioinformatics analysis were used to examine the relation of obesity measures, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with serum metabolite levels and related pathways. A co-twin control study was additionally conducted among 15 obesity-discordant monozygotic (MZ) pairs (intrapair BMI difference >3 kg/m2) to examine any differences in metabolites controlling for genetic factors. Eleven metabolites were associated with BMI, WC and WHR after controlling for genetic and shared environmental factors. Pathway analysis identified pathways such as phenylalanine metabolism, purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis that were associated with obesity. A wide range of unfavorable alterations in the serum metabolome was associated with obesity. Obesity-discordant twin analysis suggests that these associations are independent of genetic liability.
This study aimed to evaluate to what extent the different interval times between trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and vitrification influence the clinical outcomes in preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) cycles. Patients who underwent frozen embryo transfer (FET) after PGT between 2015 and 2019 were recruited. In total, 297 cycles with single day 5 euploid blastocyst transfer were included. These cycles were divided into three groups according to the interval times: <1 h group, 1–2 h group, and ≥2 h group. Blastocyst survival, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and ongoing pregnancy rates were compared. The results showed that, in PGT-SR cycles, survival rate in the ≥2 h group (96.72%) was significantly lower than in the <1 h group (100%, P = 0.047). The clinical pregnancy rate in the ≥2 h group was 55.93%, significantly lower than in the <1 h group (74.26%, P = 0.017). The ongoing pregnancy rates in the 1–2 h group and the ≥2 h group were 48.28% and 47.46%, respectively, significantly lower than that in the <1 h group (67.33%, P < 0.05). The miscarriage rate in the 1–2 h group was 18.42%, significantly higher than that in the <1 h group (5.33%, P = 0.027). In PGT-A cycles, the clinical pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates in the <1 h group were 67.44% and 53.49%, respectively, higher than that in the 1–2 h group (52.94%, 47.06%, P > 0.05) and the ≥2 h group (52.63%, 36.84%, P > 0.05). In conclusion, vitrification of blastocysts beyond 1 h after biopsy significantly influences embryo survival and clinical outcomes and is therefore not recommended.
To understand the characteristics and influencing factors related to cluster infections in Jiangsu Province, China, we investigated case reports to explore transmission dynamics and influencing factors of scales of cluster infection. The effectiveness of interventions was assessed by changes in the time-dependent reproductive number (Rt). From 25th January to 29th February, Jiangsu Province reported a total of 134 clusters involving 617 cases. Household clusters accounted for 79.85% of the total. The time interval from onset to report of index cases was 8 days, which was longer than that of secondary cases (4 days) (χ2 = 22.763, P < 0.001) and had a relationship with the number of secondary cases (the correlation coefficient (r) = 0.193, P = 0.040). The average interval from onset to report was different between family cluster cases (4 days) and community cluster cases (7 days) (χ2 = 28.072, P < 0.001). The average time interval from onset to isolation of patients with secondary infection (5 days) was longer than that of patients without secondary infection (3 days) (F = 9.761, P = 0.002). Asymptomatic patients and non-familial clusters had impacts on the size of the clusters. The average reduction in the Rt value in family clusters (26.00%, 0.26 ± 0.22) was lower than that in other clusters (37.00%, 0.37 ± 0.26) (F = 4.400, P = 0.039). Early detection of asymptomatic patients and early reports of non-family clusters can effectively weaken cluster infections.
The high overall plant-based diet index (PDI) is considered to protect against type 2 diabetes in the general population. However, whether the PDI affects gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk among pregnant women is still unclear. We evaluated the association between PDI and GDM risk based on a Chinese large prospective cohort – the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary data were collected at 13–28 weeks of pregnancy by a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The PDI was obtained by assigning plant food groups positive scores while assigning animal food groups reverse scores. GDM was diagnosed by a 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate OR of GDM, with associated 95 % CI, comparing women in different PDI quartiles. Among the total 2099 participants, 169 (8·1 %) were diagnosed with GDM. The PDI ranged from 21·0 to 52·0 with a median of 36·0 (interquartile range (IQR) 33·0–39·0). After adjusting for social-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors etc., the participants with the highest quartile of PDI were associated with 57 % reduced odds of GDM compared with women in the lowest quartile of PDI (adjusted OR 0·43; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·77; Pfor trend = 0·005). An IQR increment in PDI was associated with 29 % decreased odds of GDM (adjusted OR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·90). Findings suggest that adopting a plant-based diet during pregnancy could reduce GDM risk among Chinese women, which may be valuable for dietary counselling during pregnancy.
Meiosis is a highly conserved process, and is responsible for the production of haploid gametes and generation of genetic diversity. We previously identified the transferrin receptor (TFRC) in the proteome profile of mice neonatal testes, indicating the involvement of the TFRC in meiosis. However, the exact molecular role of the TFRC in meiosis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the function of the TFRC in neonatal testicular development by TFRC knockdown using the testis culture platform. Our results showed high TFRC expression in 2-week testes, corresponding to the first meiotic division. Targeting TFRC using morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in clear spermatocyte apoptosis. In addition, we used the chromosomal spread technique to show that a deficiency of TFRC caused the accumulation of leptotene and zygotene spermatocytes, and a decrease of pachytene spermatocytes, indicating early meiotic arrest. Moreover, the chromosomes of TFRC-deficient pachytene spermatocytes displayed sustained γH2AX association, as well as SYCP1/SYCP3 dissociation beyond the sex body. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the TFRC is essential for the progression of spermatocyte meiosis, particularly for DNA double-stranded break repair and chromosomal synapsis.