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As the southernmost part of the central segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the northern Alxa area is characterized by abundant Permian magmatism and records key information on the geological evolution of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean. This study reports new zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic and whole-rock geochemical data of the early Permian (285–286 Ma) Huisentala gabbro and Huodonghaer diorites from the Zhusileng–Hangwula Belt in the northern Alxa area. The gabbro is characterized by high Al, Ca, Mg# and light rare-earth elements, and low K, P and high field strength elements (e.g., Ti, Nb and Ta). Furthermore, the gabbro shows heterogeneous zircon ϵHf(t) value (−2.5 to +2.6). The Huodonghaer diorites show high MgO (3.46–6.32 wt%), Mg# (49–58), Sr (408–617 ppm) and Ba (223–419 ppm), and low FeOT/MgO (1.27–1.83) and TiO2 (0.48–0.90 wt%), with geochemical features similar to the high-Mg andesite/diorite. They show radiogenic zircon ϵHf(t) values of +1.2 to +4.9 and high Th/Nb ratios. These features suggest that the Huisentala gabbro and the Huodonghaer diorites were derived from the partial melting of mantle peridotite that was metasomatized by subduction-related fluids and by subducted sediment-derived melts, respectively.
The selection of an analogical source is a critical step in the design-by-analogy process. Previous researchers have explored the reasons and preferences of individual designers or design teams in selecting analogical sources. Non-designers, who instead have more knowledge of other fields, may offer new possibilities for retrieving novel analogical sources. This study focuses on differences in the selection of analogical sources between collaborative design teams composed of designers and nondesigners. There are indeed significant differences in the selection of the source type, the reasons for selecting the source, the level of abstraction in inspiration stimuli, and the novelty of design ideas between designers and non-designers. This work may provide theoretical guidance for the development of collaborative design tools and methods for teams composed of designers and non-designers with different knowledge bases.
Depressive symptoms, functional impairment, and decreased quality of life (QOL) are three important domains of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the possible causal relationship between these factors has yet to be elucidated. Moreover, it is not known whether certain symptoms of MDD are more impairing than others. The network approach is a promising solution to these shortfalls.
The baseline data of a multicenter prospective project conducted in 11 governances of China were analyzed. In total, 1385 patients with MDD were included. Depressive symptoms, functioning disability, and QOL were evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF). The network was estimated through the graphical Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) technique in combination with the directed acyclic graph.
Three centrality metrics of the graphical LASSO showed that social life dysfunction, QOL, and late insomnia exhibited the highest strength centrality. The network accuracy and stability were estimated to be robust and stable. The Bayesian network indicated that some depressive symptoms were directly associated with QOL, while other depressive symptoms showed an indirect association with QOL mediated by impaired function. Depressed mood was positioned at the highest level in the model and predicted the activation of functional impairment and anxiety.
Functional disability mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and QOL. Family functionality and suicidal symptoms were directly related to QOL. Depressed mood played the predominant role in activating both anxiety symptom and functional impairment.
Benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs) are commonly used clinically and data on their hazardous use from large populations of psychiatric patients is limited.
To assess the current status of hazardous BZRA use and related factors in Chinese out-patient psychiatric settings.
The study included out-patients with at least one BZRA prescription from five psychiatric settings in east, central and west China in 2018. Demographic and prescription information were extracted from the electronic prescription database. We defined the co-occurrence of overdose and long-term use as hazardous use, and patients whose recorded diagnoses did not meet any indications approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration as over-indication users. Additionally, 200 hazardous users were randomly selected for follow-up interview to confirm the actual situation.
Among 720 054 out-patients, 164 450 (22.8%) had at least one BZRA prescription; 55.9% of patients were prescribed over-indication and 3% were defined as hazardous users. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis with hospital as a random effect showed that factors associated with hazardous use were older age (18–64 years: β = 0.018; 95% CI 0.013–0.023; >65 years: β = 0.015; 95% CI 0.010–0.021), male (β = 0.005, 95% CI 0.003–0.007), over-indication (β = 0.013, 95% CI 0.012–0.015), more out-patient visits (β = 0.006, 95% CI 0.006–0.006) and more visits to different doctors (β = 0.007, 95% CI 0.007–0.008); 98.5% of hazardous users (197/200) could not be contacted.
BZRAs are commonly used and there is a relatively large proportion of over-indication users among Chinese psychiatric out-patients. However, only a small proportion of hazardous users were detected. The study highlights how to use prescription data to support improvements in clinical practice.
The 4.2 ka event is widely presumed to be a globally widespread aridity event and has been linked to several episodes of societal changes across the globe. Whether this climate event impacted the cultural development in south-central China remains uncertain due to a lack of regional paleorainfall records. We present here stalagmite stable carbon isotope and trace element–based reconstruction of hydroclimatic conditions from south-central China. Our data reveal a sub–millennial scale (~5.6 to 4.3 ka) drying trend in the region followed by a gradual transition to wetter conditions during the 4.2 ka event (4.3–3.9 ka). Together with the existing archaeological evidence, our data suggest that the drier climate before 4.3 ka may have promoted the Shijiahe culture, while the pluvial conditions during the 4.2 ka event may have adversely affected its settlements in low-lying areas. While military conflicts with the Wangwan III culture may have accelerated the collapse of Shijiahe culture, we suggest that the joint effects of climate and the region's topography also played important causal roles in its demise.
PU- and P*U*-equivalent parallel mechanisms (PMs) are critical families of PMs with one translational and two rotational (1T2R) degree of freedoms and have always been a research hotspot among lower mobility PMs. However, researches on these two families of PMs remain to be inadequate, and existing types are few and uncomprehensive. In this study, first, general wrench systems of PU-equivalent are derived based on virtual-chain approach and screw theory, revealing its constraint characteristics under general configuration. Cause of one parasitic motion is put forward and general wrench systems of P*U*-equivalent PMs with one parasitic motion are obtained. In addition, constraint analysis has been carried out to figure out constraint characteristics of P*U*-equivalent PMs with three parasitic motions. Second, branch chains are divided by generating constraints, and their structures are synthesized based on the presented rules. Then, the process for type synthesis of PU-equivalent PMs and P*U*-equivalent PMs and a series of novel 1T2R PMs are attained based on this. Finally, a novel PU-equivalent PM, 2PRU-PRUPc, and a novel P*U*-equivalent PM with one parasitic motion, 2PRU-PUU PM, are analyzed, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed type synthesis method.
The southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) records the assembly process between several micro-continental blocks and the North China Craton (NCC), with the consumption of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO), but whether the S-wards subduction of the PAO beneath the northern NCC was ongoing during Carboniferous–Permian time is still being debated. A key issue to resolve this controversy is whether the Carboniferous magmatism in the northern NCC was continental arc magmatism. The Alxa Block is the western segment of the northern NCC and contiguous to the southeastern CAOB, and their Carboniferous–Permian magmatism could have occurred in similar tectonic settings. In this contribution, new zircon U–Pb ages, elemental geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotopic analyses are presented for three early Carboniferous granitic plutons in the southwestern Alxa Block. Two newly identified aluminous A-type granites, an alkali-feldspar granite (331.6 ± 1.6 Ma) and a monzogranite (331.8 ± 1.7 Ma), exhibit juvenile and radiogenic Sr–Nd isotopic features, respectively. Although a granodiorite (326.2 ± 6.6 Ma) is characterized by high Sr/Y ratios (97.4–139.9), which is generally treated as an adikitic feature, this sample has highly radiogenic Sr–Nd isotopes and displays significantly higher K2O/Na2O ratios than typical adakites. These three granites were probably derived from the partial melting of Precambrian continental crustal sources heated by upwelling asthenosphere in lithospheric extensional setting. Regionally, both the Alxa Block and the southeastern CAOB are characterized by the formation of early Carboniferous extension-related magmatic rocks but lack coeval sedimentary deposits, suggesting a uniform lithospheric extensional setting rather than a simple continental arc.
The findings regarding the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the metabolic syndrome (Mets) have been inconclusive, and evidence from Chinese populations is scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the prevalence of the Mets and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 4424 participants were eligible for the analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI for the prevalence of the Mets and its components according to red meat, fish and poultry consumption. In addition, the data of our cross-sectional study were meta-analysed under a random effects model along with those of published observational studies to generate the summary relative risks (RR) of the associations between the highest v. lowest categories of red meat, fish and poultry consumption and the Mets and its components. In the cross-sectional study, the multivariable-adjusted OR for the highest v. lowest quartiles of consumption was 1·23 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·48) for red meat, 0·83 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·97) for fish and 0·93 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·18) for poultry. In the meta-analysis, the pooled RR for the highest v. lowest categories of consumption was 1·20 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·35) for red meat, 0·88 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·96) for fish and 0·97 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·10) for poultry. The findings of both cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses indicated that the association between fish consumption and the Mets may be partly driven by the inverse association of fish consumption with elevated TAG and reduced HDL-cholesterol and, to a lesser extent, fasting plasma glucose. No clear pattern of associations was observed between red meat or poultry consumption and the components of the Mets. The current findings add weight to the evidence that the Mets may be positively associated with red meat consumption, inversely associated with fish consumption and neutrally associated with poultry consumption.
The impact of baseline hypertension status on the BMI–mortality association is still unclear. We aimed to examine the moderation effect of hypertension on the BMI–mortality association using a rural Chinese cohort.
In this cohort study, we investigated the incident of mortality according to different BMI categories by hypertension status.
Longitudinal population-based cohort.
17 262 adults ≥18 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area in China.
During a median 6-year follow-up, we recorded 1109 deaths (610 with and 499 without hypertension). In adjusted models, as compared with BMI 22–24 kg/m2, with BMI ≤ 18, 18–20, 20–22, 24–26, 26–28, 28–30 and >30 kg/m2, the hazard ratios for mortality in normotensive participants were 1·92 (95% CI 1·23, 3·00), 1·44 (95% CI 1·01, 2·05), 1·14 (95% CI 0·82, 1·58), 0·96 (95% CI 0·70, 1·31), 0·96 (95% CI 0·65, 1·43), 1·32 (95% CI 0·81, 2·14) and 1·32 (95% CI 0·74, 2·35), respectively, and in hypertensive participants were 1·85 (95% CI 1·08, 3·17), 1·67 (95% CI 1·17, 2·39), 1·29 (95% CI 0·95, 1·75), 1·20 (95% CI 0·91, 1·58), 1·10 (95% CI 0·83, 1·46), 1·10 (95% CI 0·80, 1·52) and 0·61 (95% CI 0·40, 0·94), respectively. The risk of mortality was lower in individuals with hypertension with overweight or obesity v. normal weight, especially in older hypertensives (≥60 years old). Sensitivity analyses gave consistent results for both normotensive and hypertensive participants.
Low BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality regardless of hypertension status in rural Chinese adults, but high BMI decreased the mortality risk among individuals with hypertension, especially in older hypertensives.
Over recent decades, Chinese giant salamanders Andrias spp. have declined dramatically across much of their range. Overexploitation and habitat degradation have been widely cited as the cause of these declines. To investigate the relative contribution of each of these factors in driving the declines, we carried out standardized ecological and questionnaire surveys at 98 sites across the range of giant salamanders in China. We did not find any statistically significant differences between water parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, salinity, alkalinity, hardness and flow rate) recorded at sites where giant salamanders were detected by survey teams and/or had been recently seen by local respondents, and sites where they were not detected and/or from which they had recently been extirpated. Additionally, we found direct and indirect evidence that the extraction of giant salamanders from the wild is ongoing, including within protected areas. Our results support the hypothesis that the decline of giant salamanders across China has been primarily driven by overexploitation. Data on water parameters may be informative for the establishment of conservation breeding programmes, an initiative recommended for the conservation of these species.
The present study aimed to investigate the association of early-life exposure to famine with abdominal fat accumulation and function and further evaluate the influence of first-degree family history of diabetes and physical activity on this association. The present work analysed parts of the REACTION study. A total of 3033 women were enrolled. Central obesity was defined as waist circumferences (W) ≥ 85 cm. Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) was used to evaluate visceral adipose distribution and function. Partial correlation analysis showed BMI, W, glycated Hb and CVAI were associated with early-life exposure to famine (both P < 0·05). Logistic regression showed that the risks of overall overweight/obesity and central obesity in fetal, early-childhood, mid-childhood and late-childhood exposed subgroups were increased significantly (all P < 0·05). Compared with the non-exposed group, the BMI, W and CVAI of fetal, early- to late-childhood exposed subgroups were significantly increased both in those with or without first-degree family history of diabetes and in those classified as physically active or inactive, respectively (all P < 0·05). The associations of BMI, W and CVAI with early-life exposure to famine were independent of their associations with first-degree family history of diabetes (all P < 0·01) or physical activity status (all P < 0·001). Early-life exposure to famine contributed to abdominal fat accumulation and dysfunction, which was independent of the influence of genetic background and exercise habits. Physical activity could serve as a supplementary intervention for women with high risk of central obesity.
This paper presents geochemical and grain-size records since the early Holocene in core ECS0702 with a fine chronology frame obtained from the Yangtze River subaqueous delta front. Since ~9500 cal yr BP, the proxy records of chemical weathering from the Yangtze River basin generally exhibit a Holocene optimum in the early Holocene, a weak East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) period during the middle Holocene, and a relatively strong EASM period in the late Holocene. The ~8.2 and ~4.4 cal ka BP cooling events are recorded in core ECS0702. The flooding events reconstructed by the grain-size parameters since the early Holocene suggest that the floods mainly occurred during strong EASM periods and the Yangtze River mouth sandbar caused by the floods mainly formed in the early and late Holocene. The Yangtze River-mouth sandbars since the early Holocene shifted from north to south, affected by tidal currents and the Coriolis force, and more importantly, controlled by the EASM. Our results are of great significance for enriching both the record of Holocene climate change in the Yangtze River basin and knowledge about the formation and evolution progress of the deltas located in monsoon regions.
This study aimed to examine the efficacy of combining paroxetine and mirtazapine v. switching to mirtazapine, for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who have had an insufficient response to SSRI monotherapy (paroxetine) after the first 2 weeks of treatment.
This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-arm study recruited participants from five hospitals in China. Eligible participants were aged 18–60 years with MDD of at least moderate severity. Participants received paroxetine during a 2-week open-label phase and patients who had not achieved early improvement were randomized to paroxetine, mirtazapine or paroxetine combined with mirtazapine for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was improvement on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression 17-item (HAMD-17) scores 6 weeks after randomization.
A total of 204 patients who showed early non-response to paroxetine monotherapy were randomly assigned to receive either mirtazapine and placebo (n = 68), paroxetine and placebo (n = 68) or mirtazapine and paroxetine (n = 68), with 164 patients completing the outcome assessment. At week 8, the least squares (LS) mean change of HAMD-17 scores did not significantly differ among the three groups, (12.98 points) in the mirtazapine group, (12.50 points) in the paroxetine group and (13.27 points) in the mirtazapine plus paroxetine combination group. Participants in the paroxetine monotherapy group were least likely to experience adverse effects.
After 8 weeks follow-up, paroxetine monotherapy, mirtazapine monotherapy and paroxetine/mirtazapine combination therapy were equally effective in non-improvers at 2 weeks. The results of this trial do not support a recommendation to routinely offer additional treatment or a switch in treatment strategies for MDD patients who do not show early improvement after 2 weeks of antidepressant treatment.
Identifying risk factors and mortality of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could have important implications for the clinical management of AD.
This pilot study aimed to examine the overall mortality of AD patients over a 10-year surveillance period in Shanghai, China. This study is an extension of our previous investigation on mortality of neurodegenerative diseases.
One hundred and thirty-two AD patients recruited from the memory clinics of two hospitals in Shanghai in 2007 were followed up until December 31, 2017 or death, representing a follow-up period of up to 10 years. Overall standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, and predictors for survival at recruitment were estimated.
Sixty-seven patients had died by December 31, 2017, and the SMR at 10 years of follow-up was 1.225 (95% confidence interval 0.944–1.563). Employing Cox’s proportional hazard modeling, lower Mini-Mental State Examination score, and comorbid diabetes predicted poor survival in this cohort.
This pilot study suggests a similar survival trend of patients with AD compared to the general population in Shanghai urban region. Poor cognitive status and comorbid diabetes had a negative impact on the survival of AD patients.
Information on the geographic distribution of a species is fundamental for its conservation. Nonggang Babbler Stachyris nonggangensis (NB) is a rare and newly discovered species that is restricted to limestone karst forest on the Sino-Vietnamese border and has been classified as ‘Vulnerable’ due to its narrow distribution. However, the extent of the habitat suitable for NB is poorly known. We conducted a species distribution model (SDM) using 33 occurrence data and nine environmental variables. The SDM suggested highly suitable habitat covers 541 km2, and habitat with a medium and low level of suitability covers 3,218 km2 and 722 km2, respectively. Of the entire suitable habitat (low through high), 25.8% is in northern Vietnam and the rest is in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China (especially concentrated in northern Longzhou and southern Daxing Counties). Unfortunately, only 12.4% of the entire suitable habitat is known to be occupied, and the habitat outside the reserves is highly threatened by fragmentation and degradation. Globally, NB is apparently isolated in only four sites, including one site in which we discovered its presence during field validation of the model. Based on this work, we suggest upgrading NB to the ‘Endangered’ category on the IUCN Red List and adding it to the list of endangered species of both China and Vietnam.
In the era of knowledge networking, the structure and production mode of knowledge are constantly changing. This article creatively introduces the knowledge mapping method in design research, and based on the perspective of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) to compile literature, uses word frequency analysis, co-word analysis, and citation analysis to construct knowledge graphs of design science. This study graphically shows the distribution and flow law of knowledge within design discipline and probes into the research frontier and evolution trend of Chinese design science.
The secondary instabilities of stationary cross-flow vortices in a Mach 6 swept wing flow are studied using Floquet theory. High-frequency secondary instability modes of ‘y’ mode on top of stationary cross-flow vortices, and ‘z’ mode concentrating on the shoulder of the stationary cross-flow vortex are found. The most unstable secondary instability mode is always the ‘z’ mode as in incompressible swept wing flows. A new secondary instability mode concentrating on the trough of the stationary cross-flow vortex is found. The balance analysis of disturbance kinetic energy shows that the new mode belongs to the class of ‘y’ mode. The growth rate of the new ‘y’ mode located on the trough of the stationary cross-flow vortex is significantly larger than that of the ‘y’ mode on top of the stationary cross-flow vortex, and is comparable with the growth rate of the ‘z’ mode. It is also found that the new ‘y’ mode with higher frequency can evolve into the ‘z’ mode further downstream. The role of the pressure fluctuation term, including the pressure diffusion and pressure dilatation, in the energy production of secondary instability modes, is also investigated. It is shown that the pressure diffusion will only enhance the growth rate of the ‘z’ mode with higher frequency, but has little influence on other types of secondary instability mode. However, the pressure dilatation term arising from non-vanishing velocity divergence will reduce the growth rates of all secondary instability modes.
Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.