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The impact of baseline hypertension status on the BMI–mortality association is still unclear. We aimed to examine the moderation effect of hypertension on the BMI–mortality association using a rural Chinese cohort.
In this cohort study, we investigated the incident of mortality according to different BMI categories by hypertension status.
Longitudinal population-based cohort.
17 262 adults ≥18 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area in China.
During a median 6-year follow-up, we recorded 1109 deaths (610 with and 499 without hypertension). In adjusted models, as compared with BMI 22–24 kg/m2, with BMI ≤ 18, 18–20, 20–22, 24–26, 26–28, 28–30 and >30 kg/m2, the hazard ratios for mortality in normotensive participants were 1·92 (95% CI 1·23, 3·00), 1·44 (95% CI 1·01, 2·05), 1·14 (95% CI 0·82, 1·58), 0·96 (95% CI 0·70, 1·31), 0·96 (95% CI 0·65, 1·43), 1·32 (95% CI 0·81, 2·14) and 1·32 (95% CI 0·74, 2·35), respectively, and in hypertensive participants were 1·85 (95% CI 1·08, 3·17), 1·67 (95% CI 1·17, 2·39), 1·29 (95% CI 0·95, 1·75), 1·20 (95% CI 0·91, 1·58), 1·10 (95% CI 0·83, 1·46), 1·10 (95% CI 0·80, 1·52) and 0·61 (95% CI 0·40, 0·94), respectively. The risk of mortality was lower in individuals with hypertension with overweight or obesity v. normal weight, especially in older hypertensives (≥60 years old). Sensitivity analyses gave consistent results for both normotensive and hypertensive participants.
Low BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality regardless of hypertension status in rural Chinese adults, but high BMI decreased the mortality risk among individuals with hypertension, especially in older hypertensives.
Echinococcus shiquicus is currently limited to the Qinghai–Tibet plateau, a large mountainous region in China. Although the zoonotic potential remains unknown, progress is being made on the distribution and intermediate host range. In this study, we report E. shiquicus within Gansu and Qinghai provinces in regions located not only around the central areas but also the southeast edge of the plateau and describe their genetic relationship with previous isolates from the plateau. From 1879 plateau pikas examined, 2.39% (95% CI 1.79–3.18) were infected with E. shiquicus. The highest prevalence of 10.26% (4.06–23.58) was recorded in Makehe town, Qinghai province. Overall the prevalence was marginally higher in Qinghai (2.5%, CI 1.82–3.43) than in Gansu (2%, CI 1.02–3.89). The cox1 and nad1 genes demonstrated high and low haplotype and nucleotide diversities, respectively. The median-joining network constructed by the cox1–nad1 gene sequences demonstrated a star-like configuration with a median vector (unsampled haplotype) occupying the centre of the network. No peculiar distinction or common haplotype was observed in isolates originating from the different provinces. The presence of E. shiquicus in regions of the southeast and northeast edges of the Qinghai–Tibet plateau and high genetic variation warrants more investigation into the haplotype distribution and genetic polymorphism by exploring more informative DNA regions of the mitochondrial genome to provide epidemiologically useful insight into the population structure of E. shiquicus across the plateau and its axis.
Over recent decades, Chinese giant salamanders Andrias spp. have declined dramatically across much of their range. Overexploitation and habitat degradation have been widely cited as the cause of these declines. To investigate the relative contribution of each of these factors in driving the declines, we carried out standardized ecological and questionnaire surveys at 98 sites across the range of giant salamanders in China. We did not find any statistically significant differences between water parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, salinity, alkalinity, hardness and flow rate) recorded at sites where giant salamanders were detected by survey teams and/or had been recently seen by local respondents, and sites where they were not detected and/or from which they had recently been extirpated. Additionally, we found direct and indirect evidence that the extraction of giant salamanders from the wild is ongoing, including within protected areas. Our results support the hypothesis that the decline of giant salamanders across China has been primarily driven by overexploitation. Data on water parameters may be informative for the establishment of conservation breeding programmes, an initiative recommended for the conservation of these species.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REMs) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off this mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D-PIC) simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapidly expanding. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and the corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selectively adjusting of the corresponding spectra.
The FNDC5 gene encodes the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 that is a membrane protein mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, and the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism may be associated with liver disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the influence of the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the relationship between sarcopenia and the histological severity of NAFLD. A total of 370 adult individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD were studied. The association between the key exposure sarcopenia and the outcome liver histological severity was investigated by binary logistic regression. Stratified analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the association between sarcopenia and the severity of NAFLD histology. Patients with sarcopenia had more severe histological grades of steatosis and a higher prevalence of significant fibrosis and definite non-alcoholic steatohepatitis than those without sarcopenia. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and significant fibrosis (adjusted OR 2·79, 95 % CI 1·31, 5·95, P = 0·008), independent of established risk factors and potential confounders. Among patients with sarcopenia, significant fibrosis occurred more frequently in the rs3480 AA genotype carriers than in those carrying the FNDC5 rs3480 G genotype (43·8 v. 17·2 %, P = 0·031). In the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis, there was a significant interaction between the FNDC5 genotype and sarcopenia status (P value for interaction = 0·006). Sarcopenia is independently associated with significant liver fibrosis, and the FNDC5 rs3480 G variant influences the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.
The present study aimed to investigate the association of the Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) and its 6-year change with hypertension risk and compare the ability of CVAI and other obesity indices to predict hypertension based on the Rural Chinese Cohort Study. Study participants were randomly recruited by a cluster sampling procedure, and 10 304 participants ≥18 years were included. Modified Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. We identified 2072 hypertension cases during a median of 6·03 years of follow-up. The RR for the highest v. lowest CVAI quartile were 1·29 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·59) for men and 1·53 (95 % CI 1·22, 1·91) for women. Per-sd increase in CVAI was associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1·09, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·16) and women (RR 1·14, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·22). Also, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value for hypertension was higher for CVAI than the four other obesity indices for both sexes (all P < 0·05). Finally, per-sd increase in CVAI change was associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1·26, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·36) and women (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·30). Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses. CVAI and its 6-year change are positively associated with hypertension risk. CVAI has better performance in predicting hypertension than other visceral obesity indices for both sexes. The current findings suggest CVAI as a reliable and applicable predictor of hypertension in rural Chinese adults.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by extreme fatigue and disabling symptoms. Women with CFS often have a high risk of gynaecological problems such as irregular menstruation, endometriosis and pelvic pain and sexual dysfunction. Our previous results have shown that, in pregnant mice, CFS significantly decreased the progestational hormone level in serum, as well as learning and memory, and the function of the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. In addition, the F1 generation also suffered from congenital hypothyroidism. At present, there has been no report about placenta formation and embryonic development in pregnant mice with CFS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of CFS on the morphology, oxidative stress and Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway during placenta formation. In this study, we found that CFS decreased the number of implantation sites for blastocysts, and increased the number of absorbed, stillborn and malformed fetuses. The morphology and structure of the placenta were abnormal in pregnant mice with CFS. Further study found that the oxidative stress in serum, uterus and placenta was increased in pregnant mice with CFS, while the levels of antioxidase were decreased. CFS also inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway in the placenta. These results suggested that inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway and enhanced oxidative stress play an important role in abnormal placentation in pregnant mice with CFS.
The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term survival and risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patient survival in Central China. Between December 2006 and June 2011, incident and retreatment adult MDR-TB patients were enrolled in the present study. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors affecting survival. The total follow-up period was 270 person-years (PY) for 356 MDR-TB cases in Wuhan. Of the 356 cases, 103 patients died, yielding an average case fatality rate of 381.2 per 1000 TB patients per year. Using adjusted Cox regression analysis, older age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) >3.0 starting from 30 years) and low education level (primary and middle school; aHR 1.67 (95% CI 1.01–2.77)) were independently associated with lower survival. Diabetes mellitus profoundly affected the survival of MDR-TB patients (aHR 1.95 (95% CI 1.30–2.93)). Our data demonstrate that coexistent diabetes significantly and negatively impacted MDR-TB patient survival. In addition, MDR-TB patients aged 60 years or older exhibited a greater risk of mortality during follow-up. Our findings emphasise that MDR-TB patients with comorbidities that increase their risk of death require additional medical interventions to reduce mortality.
Metabolically healthy obesity refers to a subset of obese people with a normal metabolic profile. We aimed to explore the association between metabolically healthy and obesity status and risk of hypertension among Chinese adults from The Rural Chinese Cohort Study. This prospective cohort study enrolled 9137 Chinese adults without hypertension, type 2 diabetes or treatment for lipid abnormality at baseline (2007–2008) and followed up during 2013–2014. Modified Poisson regression models were used to examine the risk of hypertension by different metabolically healthy and obesity status, estimating relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. During 6 years of follow-up, we identified 1734 new hypertension cases (721 men). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking and other confounding factors, risk of hypertension was increased with metabolically healthy general obesity (MHGO) defined by BMI (RR 1·75, 95 % CI 1·02, 3·00) and metabolically healthy abdominal obesity (MHAO) defined by waist circumference (RR 1·51, 95 % CI 1·12, 2·04) as compared with metabolically healthy non-obesity. The associations between metabolically healthy and obesity status and hypertension outcome were consistent after stratifying by sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. Both MHGO and MHAO were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Obesity control programmes should be implemented to prevent or delay the development of hypertension in rural China.
Atom probe tomography (APT) has emerged as an important tool in characterizing three-dimensional semiconductor devices. However, the complex structure and hybrid nature of a semiconductor device can pose serious challenges to the accurate measurement of dopants. In particular, local magnification and trajectory aberration observed when analyzing hybrid materials with different evaporation fields can cause severe distortions in reconstructed geometry and uncertainty in local chemistry measurement. To address these challenges, this study systematically investigates the effect of APT sampling directions on the measurement of n-type dopants P and As in an Si fin field-effect transistor (FinFET). We demonstrate that the APT samples made with their Z-axis perpendicular to the center axis of the fin are effective to minimize the negative effects that result from evaporation field differences between the Si fin and SiO2 on reconstruction and achieve improved measurement of dopant distributions. In addition, new insights have been gained regarding the distribution of ion-implanted P and As in the Si FinFET.
p53, DNA damage regulated gene (PDRG) and apoptosis-stimulating p53 protein 2 (ASPP2) are p53-related genes which can promote apoptosis. The full-length cDNA sequence of the Px-pdrg and Px-aspp2 genes were characterized and their mRNA expression dynamics under heat stress were studied in diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella collected from Fuzhou, China. The full-length cDNA of Px-pdrg and Px-aspp2 spans 721 and 4201 bp, containing 395 and 3216 bp of the open reading frame, which encode a putative protein comprising 130 and 1072 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 14.58 and 118.91 kDa, respectively. As compared to 25°C, both Px-pdrg and Px-aspp2 were upregulated in chlorpyrifos-resistant (Rc) and -susceptible (Sm) strains of DBM adults and pupae under heat stress. In addition, Rc DBM showed a significantly higher expression level of Px-pdrg and Px-aspp2 in contrast to Sm DBM. The results indicate that high temperature can significantly promote apoptosis process, especially in Rc-DBM. Significant fitness cost in Rc-DBM might be associated with drastically higher transcript abundance of Px-pdrg and Px-aspp2 under the heat stress.
There has been great concern with the use of radiofrequency ablation in infants since radiofrequency ablation lesions were shown to have a progressing nature in immature myocardium of animals. In this report, we present a 2-month-old infant with life-threatening medically refractory supraventricular tachycardia. Radiofrequency ablation successfully cured arrhythmia; however, late effects of radiofrequency ablation lesions resulted in a progressive mitral valve perforation requiring surgical repair.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
The effects of the thermal cyclic aging treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 2060 Al–Li alloy laser beam welded joints were investigated. Aging treatments were conducted at different temperatures and for different cycles. Test results showed that the tensile strength of the weld joints increased and the elongation slightly decreased after the thermal cycling treatment. It was also found that the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the welds exhibited a significant increase in microhardness, whilst the microhardness variation of the nondendrite equiaxed zone (EQZ) can be neglected. The strengthening effect of the thermal cycling became more obvious as the temperature and cycles increased. The highest strength of around 513 MPa (96% of the base metal) was obtained at the temperature of 180 °C. Reprecipitation of strengthening phases such as T1 in the HAZ at 180 °C was observed by TEM, which can be considered as the main reason for the strengthening effect of the aging treatment.
As high-entropy alloys (HEAs) are being actively explored for next-generation structural materials, gaining a comprehensive understanding of their creep, fatigue, and fracture behaviors is indispensable. These three aspects of mechanical properties are particularly important because (i) creep resistance dictates an alloy’s high-temperature applications; (ii) fatigue failure is the most frequently encountered failure mode in the service life of a material; (iii) fracture is the very last step that a material loses its load-carrying capability. In consideration of their importance in designing HEAs toward applicable structural materials, this article offers a comprehensive review on what has been accomplished so far in these three topics. The sub-topics covered include a comparison of different creep testing methods, creep-parameter extraction, creep mechanism, high-cycle fatigue S–N relation, fatigue-crack-growth behavior, fracture toughness, fracture under different loading conditions, and fractography. Directions for future efforts are suggested in the end.
Mastery of strengthening strategies to achieve high-capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries can shed light on understanding the nature of diffusion-induced stress and offer an approach to use submicro-sized materials with an ultrahigh capacity for large-scale batteries. Here, we report solute strengthening in a series of silicon (Si)–germanium (Ge) alloys. When the larger solute atom (Ge) is added to the solvent atoms (Si), a compressive stress is generated in the vicinity of Ge atoms. This local stress field interacts with resident dislocations and subsequently impedes their motion to increase the yield stress in the alloys. The addition of Ge into Si substantially improves the capacity retention, particularly in Si0.50Ge0.50, aligning with literature reports that the Si/Ge alloy showed a maximum yield stress in Si0.50Ge0.50. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode show that the phase change undergoes three subsequent steps during the lithiation process: removal of surface oxide layer, formation of cluster-size Lix(Si,Ge), and formation of crystalline Li15(Si,Ge)4. Furthermore, the lithiation process starts from higher index facets, i.e., (220) and (311), then through the low index facet (111), suggesting the orientation-dependence of the lithiation process in the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode.
Mammalian neonates undergo rapid transitions from a sterile uterine environment with a continuous intravenous supply of nutrients to a microbe-rich environment with intermittent ingesting of colostrum/milk via the gut. Currently, little is known about the colostrum-induced alterations of intestinal mucosal proteins in piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this study, we sought to investigate the innate differences and effects of colostrum on alterations in small-intestinal proteomes of IUGR piglets. Two IUGR (approximately 0·9 kg) and two normal-birth weight (NBW; approximately 1·3 kg) piglets were obtained from each of six sows at birth. One half (n 12; 6 IUGR v. 6 NBW) of the selected newborn piglets were killed to obtain jejunum samples, and the other half (n 12; 6 IUGR v. 6 NBW) of the newborn piglets were allowed to suckle colostrum from their own mothers for 24 h before jejunum sample collection. On the basis of proteomic analysis, we identified thirty-one differentially expressed proteins in the jejunal mucosa between IUGR and normal neonates before or after colostrum consumption. The intestinal proteins altered by colostrum feeding play important roles in the following: (1) increasing intestinal integrity, transport of nutrients, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, immune response and, therefore, cell proliferation; and (2) decreasing oxidative stress, and therefore cell apoptosis, in IUGR neonates. However, colostrum only partially ameliorated the inferior status of the jejunal mucosa in IUGR neonates. These findings provide the first evidence in intestinal protein alterations of IUGR neonates in response to colostrum ingestion, and thus render new insights into the mechanisms responsible for impaired growth in IUGR neonates and into new nutritional intervention strategies.
The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in patients with the major depressive disorder (MDD) may involve neuroinflammation mediated by cytokines.
The aim of this study was to examine the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, sustained attention, and their association in patients with MDD.
Thirty patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Sustained attention was measured using the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The serum IL-6 levels of all subjects were assessed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
There were significant differences in the log10RVP total hits, log10RVP total misses, and log10RVP mean latency between patients with MDD and healthy controls (F = 6.04, p = 0.017; F = 19.77, p < 0.0001; F = 14.42, p < 0.0001, respectively). The serum levels of Log10IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in healthy controls (F = 192.27, p < 0.0001). The log10IL-6 levels were also positively correlated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (r = 0.45, p = 0.013). A further stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that the log10IL-6 levels were significantly associated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (β = 0.31, t = 2.41, p = 0.025).
Our data suggested that increased IL-6 levels were associated with the psychopathology of MDD, and that abnormal IL-6 levels were implicated in the impairment of sustained attention in patients with MDD.