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Several studies have demonstrated a significantly increased risk of specific patterns of congenital anomalies in infants born to diabetic mothers. In particular, caudal dysplasia sequence has been linked to pregnancy complicated by maternal diabetes. In addition, several cases of infants born to diabetic mothers presenting with features of DiGeorge anomaly have been reported. Infants with DiGeorge anomaly can display additional manifestations within the spectrum of caudal dysplasia sequence, including vertebral anomalies and renal agenesis.
We report a neonate presenting with the co-occurrence of features of both DiGeorge anomaly and caudal dysplasia sequence, born to a mother with poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes.
The patient was affected by truncus arteriosus type A1 and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Maternal diabetes can cause a spectrum of manifestations, expressing with isolated DiGeorge anomaly or caudal dysplasia sequence, with intermediate phenotypes or with the co-occurrence of both the congenital anomalies in the same patient. The present observations argue for a feasible link between truncus arteriosus with hypertrophic cardiomiopathy, DiGeorge anomaly, and maternal diabetes.
We investigated the prevalence, type, and course of congenital cardiac defects and systemic hypertension in our patients with Williams-Beuren-Beuren syndrome.
Methods and results
We reviewed the clinical records of all patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome examined between 1981 and 2006. We identified 150 patients, aged from 7 months to 45 years, with a follow-up from 6 months to 25 years, the mean being 6.4 years. A cardiac anomaly was present in 113 of the 150 patients (75%). Defects were typical in over four-fifths of the group. We found supravalvar aortic stenosis in 73 of 113 patients (64.6%), isolated in 43. Pulmonary stenosis, isolated in 18 cases, was found in 51 of 113 (45.1%), while aortic coarctation and mitral valvar prolapse were each found in 7 (6.2%), 3 of the lesions is isolation. Atypical defects were found in 19 patients, tetralogy of Fallot in 2, atrial septal defects in 4, aortic and mitral valvar insufficiencies in 1 each, bicuspid aortic valves in 2, and ventricular septal defects in 9, 4 of the last being isolated. Systemic hypertension, observed in 33 patients (22%), was poorly controlled in 10. Diagnostic and/or interventional cardiac catheterization was undertaken in 24 patients, with 30 surgical procedures performed in 26 patients. Of the group, 3 patients died.
Cardiac defects were present in three-quarters of our patients. Pulmonary arterial lesions generally improved, while supravalvar aortic stenosis often progressed. Atypical cardiac malformations, particularly ventricular septal defects, occurred frequently. Systemic hypertension was found in one-fifth, even in the absence of structural cardiac defects. The short-term mortality was low.
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