A taxonomic study and a phylogenetic analysis of the neotropical genus Scoposcartula Young were carried out based on characters of the external morphology and male and female genitalia. A key to the species of the genus and descriptions of the species that were not treated in detail in recent taxonomic papers are provided. Tettigonia sistens Walker, 1858 was found to be a junior subjective synonym of Scoposcartula basimacula (Walker, 1851). Some peculiar characters of the female genitalia were described and included in the analysis, such as a transverse sclerotised line on pygofer, a structure on the base of the first valvulae of ovipositor (herein named prevalvifer area), and teeth of the second valvulae of ovipositor with two tips (cusps) and a posterior flat area. The phylogenetic analysis, based on 82 characters, yielded four equally most parsimonious trees that recovered a monophyletic Scoposcartula.