Neurodegenerative diseases are a pathologically, clinically and genetically diverse group of disorders without effective disease-modifying therapies. Pathologically, these disorders are characterised by disease-specific protein aggregates in neurons and/or glia and referred to as proteinopathies. Many neurodegenerative diseases show pathological overlap with the same abnormally deposited protein occurring in anatomically distinct regions, which give rise to specific patterns of cognitive and motor clinical phenotypes. Sequential distribution patterns of protein inclusions throughout the brain have been described. Rather than occurring in isolation, it is increasingly recognised that combinations of one or more proteinopathies with or without cerebrovascular disease frequently occur in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, complex constellations of ageing-related and incidental pathologies associated with tau, TDP-43, Aβ, α-synuclein deposition have been commonly reported in longitudinal ageing studies. This review provides an overview of current classification of neurodegenerative and age-related pathologies and presents the spectrum and complexity of mixed pathologies in community-based, longitudinal ageing studies, in major proteinopathies, and genetic conditions. Mixed pathologies are commonly reported in individuals >65 years with and without cognitive impairment; however, they are increasingly recognised in younger individuals (<65 years). Mixed pathologies are thought to lower the threshold for developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Hereditary neurodegenerative diseases also show a diverse range of mixed pathologies beyond the proteinopathy primarily linked to the genetic abnormality. Cases with mixed pathologies might show a different clinical course, which has prognostic relevance and obvious implications for biomarker and therapy development, and stratifying patients for clinical trials.