To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We model vertical prominence dynamics, describing the evolution of the magnetic field in a self-consistent way. Since the photosphere imposes a boundary condition on the field (flux conservation), the Alfvén crossing time τ0/2 between prominence and photosphere has to be taken into account. Using an electrodynamical description of the prominence we are able to compare two basic prominence models: Normal Polarity (NP) and Inverse Polarity (IP).
The results indicate that for IP prominences, the stability properties are sensitive to ωτ0 (ω: oscillation frequency of prominence). For ωτ0 ≳ 1 instability results. Forced oscillations of five minutes are efficiently excited in IP prominences that meet certain criteria only. NP prominences on the other hand, are insensitive to the Alfvén crossing time. Forced oscillations of five minutes are difficult to excite in NP prominences.
We review the observed characteristics of co-rotating clouds of neutral hydrogen recently detected in rapidly rotating, chromospherically active late-type stars and commonly termed “stellar prominences”. Their observed properties are placed in an overall interpretive framework and compared to standard solar prominences.
A time series of Hα spectra of the rapidly rotating star HK Aqr has been analyzed. Evidence is found for the presence of cool clouds which are in co-rotation with the star. The cloud velocities, as derived from the clouds’ absorption features, can be used to put constraints on the clouds’ co-latitudes and their distances from the star using a so-called visibility diagram. For HK Aqr most clouds are at distances of 2–3 stellar radii and do not extend beyond the co-rotation radius. By using a simple radiative transfer model, we demonstrate that for most stars the presence of clouds affects the whole Hα profile and does not result in discrete absorptions. Only clouds near rapidly rotating stars, with an inclination close to 90°, will cause discrete absorption features. The cool cloud plasma can form when a temperature inversion is created at the apex of a stellar-sized coronal loop because of reduced coronal heating at large distances from the star. It is likely that the cloud condensations are related to inverse polarity filaments because, near rapidly rotating stars, the axial current in normal polarity filaments decreases with height and has to change sign at the co-rotation radius.
We discuss the theory of quasi-static coronal loops, introducing a phase plane representation to study loop solutions independently of specific boundary conditions. Emphasis is put on the effects of loop expansion, heat input and gravitational stratification on the differential emission measure, and on the intrinsic limitations of spectroscopic observations for deriving loop parameters. We show that certain classes of published loop solutions cannot actually exist. For expanding loops new classes of loop solutions, with rather special properties, are presented. Special attention is paid to loops in binary systems and on rapidly rotating stars.
We address the inversion problem of deriving the differential emission measure (DEM) distribution D(T) = nenHdV/d log T from the spectrum of an optically thin plasma. In the past we have applied the iterative Withbroe-Sylwester technique and the Polynomial technique to the analysis of EXOSAT spectra of cool stars, but recently we have applied the inversion technique discussed by Craig & Brown (1986) and Press et al. (1992) in the analysis of EUVE spectra of cool stars. The inversion problem-a Fredholm equation of the first kind-is ill-posed and solutions tend to show large, unphysical oscillations. We therefore apply a second-order regularization, i.e., we select the specific DEM for which the second derivative is as smooth as is statistically allowed by the data. We demonstrate the importance of fitting lines and continuum simultaneously, discuss the effect on the DEM of continuum emission at temperatures where no line diagnostics are available, and address possible ways to check various model assumptions such as abundances and photon destruction induced by resonant scattering.
We discuss the coronal spectra of a sample of cool stars observed with the spectrometers of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). The emission measure distributions show (a) a relatively weak component between 0.1 MK and 1 MK, (b) a dominant component somewhere between 2 MK and 10 MK, and (c) in all cases but one a component in the formal solution at temperatures exceeding ≈ 20 MK. Where this hot tail is not associated with a real hot component, it is a spurious result reflecting a lowered line-to-continuum ratio, which, for instance, may be the result of a low abundance of heavy elements or of resonant scattering in some of the strongest coronal lines. We suggest that in Procyon’s corona photons in the strongest lines formed around a few million Kelvin undergo resonant scattering in a circumstellar medium, possibly a stellar wind. The flare spectrum of AU Mic suggests that resonant scattering may also occur in dense, hot flare plasmas. The electron densities of the 5–15 MK component are some three orders of magnitude higher than typical of the solar-like component around 2 MK; the volume filling factors of the hot components are therefore expected to be relatively small.
We consider the physics of magnetic flares in the energetic radiation field of an accretion disk corona (ADC). The X-ray emission from these flares is thought to be responsable for the observed hard powerlaw component in the X-ray spectra of galactic black hole candidates in their ‘high’ spectral state. During the flare event (inverse Compton) scattering of soft photons from the underlying disk into hard photons occurs on accelerated electrons in current sheets. The electrons are decelerated by the radiation drag force that results from the up-scattering. This friction-like effect of the intense background radiation field on the motion of the electrons in the sheet can be considered as a form of resistivity in the magnetohydrodynamical picture of the current sheet: Compton resistivity. A spectrum is derived for the up-scattered radiation from current sheets in the ADC and it is found that this spectrum mimics a powerlaw above a critical photon energy.
Four flares were observed on the late-type binary YY Gem in March 1988 during a total monitoring time of 408 min. The flares were unusual in that there is a periodicity in their occurrence, being separated by 48 ± 3 min. Considering the flares to be formed as a stochastic process, we find that the probability of these events occurring by chance is 0.5%. Modelling indicates that for quite reasonable input parameters (e.g. a spot field strength of 1000 G and a filament with mass per unit length of 106g cm-1), the flare periodicity can be explained in terms of filament oscillations. The only requirement is that there should be a filament at these heights where the magnetic field drops inversely proportional to the height.
Ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of the RS CVn star II Peg in February 1983 show evidence for flare activity in greatly enhanced chromospheric and transition region emission lines. The total radiative losses from the chromosphere and transition region (i.e. the temperature interval 4.0 ≤ log Te ≤ 5.4) during the flare is 3.1 1035 erg. Over the whole atmosphere (i.e. the temperature interval 4.0 ≤ log Te ≤ 8.0), we estimate total radiative losses of 2.4 1036 erg, (excluding hydrogen line radiation). At flare peak, the flare radiated 1.5 1032 erg s–1. Adopting a two-ribbon flare model, where the filament is located between the two stars of the system, we can have 2039(l/R⊙) erg of magnetic energy available, where l is the filament length and we have taken a magnetic field strength of 1000G. Therefore, only a small fraction of this magnetic energy need be converted into heating of the flare plasma.
We have re-analyzed the X-ray flare on Algol which was observed with EXOSAT (White et al. (1986)). The common practice of estimating loop volume and length from the decay time of the flare is discussed extensively. We show that during the decay phase of the flare both scaling laws for coronal loops are valid. This implies a unique determination of loop volume and length and allows a check whether additional heating occurs in the decay phase of a flare.
Relative energies are given for the U, B, V, R and I bands for a-3.8 magnitude U-band flare observed on the dwarf dMe star Gl 234 AB on 28 Feb 1985. This flare had a 45 second rise time and 20 minute decay time. The total flare energy from all five bands during the flare was 7 1031 erg, 34% of this total was from the U-band and 20% from the two near infrared R and I bands. The energy density (per frequency interval) implied a rising continuum towards the red, however this only lasted for approximately 20-40 seconds, i.e. during the impulsive phase, after-which the excess flare emission could not be detected in tlie near infrared bands. Of the various models fitted to the flare data (i.e. optical synchrotron, bound-free emission and free-free emission), bound-free emission seems the most promising.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.