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Over an order of magnitude reduction in dark current was observed for gas-source molecular beam epitaxially (GSMBE) grown, lattice-matched n- and p-type InGaAs/InP quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). Peak spectral response at 8.93 and 4.55 μm for n- and p-type QWIPs, respectively, open the possibility of dual-band monolithic integration under identical GSMBE growth conditions.
Carbon has gained wide acceptance as a p-type dopant for GaAs-based device structures due to its low atomic diffusivity. Carbon doping of InGaAs, however, is complicated by the amphoteric nature of C and difficulty in incorporating C efficiently during epitaxial growth. We have achieved hole concentrations as high as 7x1019 cm−3 in CC14-doped InGaAs grown at low temperature by MOCVD. Growth-related issues include the effect of CCl4 on the alloy composition due to etching during growth, and the incorporation of hydrogen, which passivates the C acceptor and reduces the hole concentration during growth and during the post-growth cool-down. The effect of H passivation on minority carrier transport has been characterized by the zero-field time-of-flight technique. High frequency InP/InGaAs HBTs with a C-doped base have been demonstrated with ft = 62 GHz and fmax = 42 GHz, which is comparable to the best performance reported for MOCVD-grown InP/InGaAs HBTs.
The existing microscopic models of acceptor passivation in p-type hydrogenated GaAs are reviewed in light of new experimental results concerning the relative thermodynamic stability of the passivating complexes. In particular, the present model for neutralization of Group II acceptors, Be, Mg and Zn, on Ga sites is shown to be inadequate to account for the observed trends, which imply existence of a strong interaction between the hydrogen and acceptor. It is proposed that a direct acceptor-hydrogen bond is formed due to attractive Coulomb interaction between the ionized species. The relative stability of the pair complex can be then explained based on electronegativity of the acceptor species. Passivation at intermediate pair separations up to about twice the Bohr radius of the nearest acceptor, is also discussed.
A shallow acceptor-like defect labeled “A” is frequently incorporated in molecular beam epitaxial GaAs. We report here anomalous photoluminescence effects that are induced by this defect. With increasing concentration of the “A” defect: (1) neutral and ionized donor-bound exciton peaks disappear almost completely even for donor concentration as high as 7×1014 cm-3 and compensation ratio ND/NA≈0.3; (2) a new, sharp line emerges at 1.5138 eV, and (3) the relative intensity and line shape of the free exciton transition change dramatically. These observations are discussed in the perspective of previous reports, where similar effects were, in our opinion, misinterpreted.
A systematic study of the structural properties and defect distribution of GaAs layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Si substrates misoriented 1°, 1.5°, 2°, 4°, and 6° from  toward  is reported. Double crystal x-ray rocking curves, cross-section and plan-view Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the structural strain and defect distribution of as-grown and annealed GaAs layers. Both strain and defect density in the GaAs layers are found to be dependent of the degree of substrate misorientation as well as the direction in which measurements are made. Plan-view TEM shows an asymmetric distribution of microtwins in two perpendicular directions. There exists a correlation between the directionality of the strain and of the defect density. Furnace annealing at 850°C for 30 minutes in an arsine overpressure can reduce significantly the defects, the strain and the strain anisotropy. It is found that microtwins are of the highest density when the substrate is misoriented about 4 degrees for the as-grown samples. Though a reduction of defects after annealing occurs for all samples, the least misoriented one shows the most improvement.
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