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2020 was to be a landmark year for setting targets to stop biodiversity loss and prevent dangerous climate change. However, COVID-19 has caused delays to the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP) of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the 26th COP of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Negotiations on the Global Biodiversity Framework and the second submission of Nationally Determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement were due to take place at these COPs. There is uncertainty as to how the COVID-19 disruption will affect the negotiations, whether parties will pursue more ambitious actions or take a weaker stance on issues. Our policy analysis shows there are broad opportunities for climate and biodiversity frameworks to better respond to COVID-19, by viewing future pandemics, biodiversity loss, and climate change as interconnected problems. Importantly, there needs to be greater focus on agriculture and food systems in discussions, establishing safeguards for carbon markets, and implementing nature-based solutions in meeting the Paris Agreement goals. We can no longer delay action to address the biodiversity and climate emergencies, and accelerating sustainable recovery plans through virtual spaces may help keep discussions and momentum before the resumption of in-person negotiations.
High ambition needed at UN biodiversity and climate conferences to address pandemics, biodiversity, climate change, and health.
Describe Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder's (ADHD) prevalence in Bipolar Disorders (BD) and relatives.
78 admissions for Bipolar Disorder (DSM-IV) in Impatient Psychiatric Unit, in Hospital Clínico Universitario of Valladolid (Spain). Only 36/78 patients participate in study. Demographic, social and clinical information were registered. ADHD symptomatology was evaluated from patient and descendant (Conners short version).
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in childhood/adolescence were detected in 13,9% (5/36). Conners score were negative (below 15) in all case.
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in their children were detected in 6,25% (n=3). Conner score were positive in 2,1%. Family psychiatry history in 72,2% (n=26), affective disorder in 60,52% (n=23). No family history with ADHD diagnosis. Only one case (2,8%) with symptomatology suggestive of ADHD in relatives.
The ADHD prevalence in our sample of BD and relatives weren’t higher than general population.
- Frontiers Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. Cathryn A. Galanter, MDa, Ellen Leibenluft, MD. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 17 (2008) 325-346.
- Co-occurrence of bipolar and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in children.
UPD is a regional referral hospital psychiatric care unit, endowed with multidisciplinary equipment. It provides care to people with light/moderate/severe intellectual incapacity coexisting with mental disease and/or severe behavioral disorders. It offers attention to patients who need a protected therapeutical environment for correcting behavior disorders. It was opened in September 2008.
Description of:therapeutic goals, inclusion/exclusion criteria, admission protocol and psychotherapeutic/pharmacological interventions.
Analysis of inpatients's sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and preliminary assessment of therapy goals.
Retrospective study(13-month) of patients admitted to UPD of Leon Hospital from its inception to date. Data are collected from medical histories.
47 referrals have been received,5 of them have been rejected not to fulfill criteria. We’ve 16 patients on waiting list.32 incomes have been realized and 22 discharges have occurred.
19 of the incomes correspond to Mild,6 to Moderate,6 to Severe and 1 to Profound mental Retardation.
Regarding co-morbidity:22 patients presented serious behavioral disorder. From this group, 2 met criteria for autistic disorder, 5 had schizophrenia or unspecific psychotic disorders, 5 presented Personality Disorder and one ADHD.
10 patients did’nt present any important behavioral disturbance. From this group 2 were diagnosed with OCD,3 presented problems due to Alcohol and Substance-related Disorders,3 had Psychotic Disorders, one met criteria for Impulse Control Disorder and one presented Mood Disorder.
Before admission, 12 patients resided in specific handicappeds center, 5 intermittently at selected centers and in family, and 15 lived with family.
Psychotherapeutic intervention and treatment were useful in most cases. It was particularly helpful in treatment of behavioral disturbances. Now we must determine effectiveness in maintenance of improvement when they return to their community.
We report the synthesis of metal-free nitrogen-doped electrocatalysts obtained from graphite and urea as carbon and nitrogen precursor, respectively. High-energy milling and thermal annealing were carried out to obtain low cost electrocatalysts. Additionally, this method has shorter synthesis times, is environmentally friendly and use high-availability raw materials. A short-route synthesis consisted in the partial exfoliation of graphite by mechanical milling with urea. Afterwards, nitrogen was integrated into the exfoliated graphite lattice by thermal annealing at 500°C. XPS analyses shows up to 1.7 at. % was incorporated to the graphitic lattice. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy were used to analyse the morphology and structural features. The catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in basic media was evaluated by the rotating disk electrode technique.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Residual feed intake (RFI) is an alternative measure of feed efficiency (FE) and is calculated as the difference between actual and expected feed intake. The biological mechanisms underlying animal-to-animal variation in FE are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the digestive ability of beef cows selected for RFI divergence as heifers, using two contrasted diets. Fifteen 4-year-old beef cows were selected from a total of 69 heifers based on their RFI following the feedlot test. The selected heifers were ranked into high-RFI (+ 1.02 ± 0.28, n = 8) and low-RFI (−0.73 ± 0.28, n = 7), and a digestibility trial was performed after their first lactation. Both RFI groups were offered two different diets: 100% hay or a fattening diet which consisted of a DM basis of 67% whole-plant maize silage and 33% high starch concentrates over four experimental periods (two per diet). A diet effect was observed on feed intake and apparent digestibility, whereas no diet × RFI interaction was detected (P > 0.05). Intake and apparent digestibility were higher in cows fed the fattening diet than in those fed the hay diet (P < 0.0001). DM intake (DMI) and organic matter apparent digestibility (OMd) were repeatable and positively correlated between the two subsequent periods of measurements. For the hay and fattening diets, the repeatability between periods was r = 0.71 and r = 0.73 for DMI and r = 0.87 and r = 0.48 for OMd, respectively. Moreover, both intake (r = 0.55) and OMd (r = 0.54) were positively correlated (P < 0.05) between the hay and fattening diets. Significant differences between beef cows selected for divergence in RFI as heifers were observed for digestive traits (P < 0.05), DM and organic matter (OM) apparent digestibility being higher for low-RFI cows. Overall, this study showed that apparent digestibility contributes to between-animal variation in FE in beef cows.
This paper addresses the chemical synthesis and characterization of a composite formed by Li2O-Al2O3-Al3Fe-Al3Fe5O12/PCL which were obtained by the process of reduction of ferric chloride (FeCl3) with lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) in an open atmosphere. The goal of the development of this hybrid material was to perform a superparamagnetic material with several potential applications. The results of the characterizations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer showed a Li2O-Al2O3-Al3Fe-Al3Fe5O12 “desert rose stone”-like morphology 3D hierarchical powders formation when particles were sintered at 850 °C. Homogeneous nanometric particles after calcination at 1100 °C were observed. X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to determine their composition. Subsequently, the superparamagnetic powders were added by dispersion in a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix, and then, were evaluated by SEM for the observation of their morphologies. The composite material presented a polymer network with an opened structure, a well dispersion of the oxides particles into the interstices with irregular topography and reliefs.
In this study, the microstructural characterization of a superplastic Zn-Al-Ag alloy (72, 24, and 4 in % wt. respectively) by using spectroscopy analysis techniques was obtained. The X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques were used. The main objective of this alloy development is to improve its super-plasticity property and increases its corrosion resistance in acid rain environments. The effect of small grain microstructure of the alloy obtained at the end of the fabrication process improved the super-plasticity behavior. The result of the fabrication process was observed by the characterization of crystallographic phases (morphology, size and distribution) and the chemical composition. The obtained results by XRF shown that Zn was the higher proportion element, in addition the Ag (4% wt.) addition to Zn-Al base alloy improves the grain refinement, as was observed by the SEM characterization. The Ag3Al and AgZn3 intermetallic compounds homogeneously dispersed were observed in the microstructure of the Zn-Al solid solution phase. The size grain observed after the rolling process was less than 10 µm, and it was associated to one of the main characteristics of super-plasticity properties. The XRD analysis results corroborated the present phases in the alloy, as was identified with the SEM and EDS characterization.
The effect on the mechanical properties at room temperature of Li and Ag additions to the Fe–Al (40 at.%)-based alloy produced by conventional casting were evaluated in this work. Alloying elements were added into a previously molted Fe–(40 at.%) aluminum-based alloy, stirred, and then cast into sand molds to directly produce tensile specimens. To determine the mechanical properties, tensile tests and hardness measurements were performed. The additions of both Ag and Li showed an increase in ductility and tensile strength of the intermetallic alloys. In addition, hardness was substantially increased with the Li addition. Lithium additions promoted a solid solution hardening, whereas 3 at.% of Ag additions promoted ductility due to a microstructural modification and to the formation of a soft Ag3Al phase. Characterization by both optical and electronic microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction supported the mechanical characterization.
Elevated physical activity has been observed in some patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) despite their emaciated condition. However, its effects on treatment outcome remain unclear. This study aimed to examine objectively measured physical activity in this clinical population and how it might be related to a partial hospitalization therapy response, after considering potential confounders.
The sample comprised 88 AN patients consecutively enrolled in a day hospital treatment program, and 116 healthy-weight controls. All participants were female and a baseline assessment took place using an accelerometer (Actiwatch AW7) to measure physical activity, the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and the Depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist-Revised. Outcome was evaluated upon the termination of the treatment program by expert clinicians.
Although AN patients and controls did not differ in the average time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (P = .21), nor daytime physical activity (P = .34), fewer AN patients presented a high physical activity profile compared to the controls (37% vs. 61%, respectively; P = .014). Both lower levels of MVPA and greater eating disorder severity had a direct effect on a poor treatment outcome. Depression symptoms in the patients were associated with lower MVPA, as well as with an older age, a shorter duration of the disorder and greater eating disorder psychopathology.
There is a notable variation in the physical activity profile of AN patients, characterized by either low or very high patterns. Physical activity is a highly relevant issue in AN that must be taken into account during the treatment process.
The study of corrosion behavior of polyurethane/nanohydroxyapatite hybrid coating in aerated Hank solution at 25 °C by Potentiodinamic and Electrochemical Impedance techniques was realized. The nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) powders were synthesized by ultrasonic assisted co-precipitation wet chemical method and then mixed with pure polyurethane (PU) during the polymerization. Results were supported by SEM morphologic characterization. Results showed that good corrosion resistance of hybrid coating, showing small corrosion product layer formation. Corrosion mechanisms are affected by an increasing of polarization resistance, promoting decreasing in the corrosion rates. Diffusion of ionic species was the governing mechanism in the corrosion behavior of polyurethane/nanohydroxyapatite hybrid coating.
Building materials are very complex samples of worldwide importance; hence quantitative knowledge of their mineralogical composition is necessary to predict performances. Rietveld quantitative phase analysis (RQPA) allows a direct measurement of the crystalline phase contents of cements. We highlight in this paper the use of laboratory X-ray powder diffraction (LXRPD) employing high-energy radiation, molybdenum (Mo), for attaining the RQPA of cements. Firstly, we evaluate the accuracy of RQPA employing a commercial calcium sulfoaluminate clinker with gypsum. In addition to MoKα1 and MoKα1,2 radiations, Cu and synchrotron patterns are also analyzed for the sake of comparison. Secondly, the assessment of the accuracy of RQPA results obtained using different radiations (synchrotron, Mo, and Cu) and geometries (reflection and transmission) is performed by analyzing two well-known commercial samples. As expected, for LXRPD data, accuracy in the RQPA results improves as the irradiated volume increases. Finally, three very complex aged hydrated cements have been analyzed using MoKα1-LXRPD and Synchrotron-XRPD. The main overall outcome of this work is the benefit for RQPA of using strictly monochromatic MoKα1 radiation. Best laboratory results arise from MoKα1 data as the effective tested volume is much increased but peak overlapping is not swelled.
We investigate the accuracy achievable on measurements of the the growth rate of structure f(z) using redshift-space distortions (RSD), when (a) these are measured on the group-galaxy cross correlation function; (b) the latter is expanded over a modified version of the conventional spherical armonics, “truncated multipole moments”. Simulation results give first indications that this combination can push systematic errors on f(z) below 3%, using scales r ⩾ 10h−1 Mpc.
The historical monuments such as cathedrals, public buildings and so on, are a fundamental part of artistic heritage of a country. They reflect, ultimately, much of its culture and history. For several decades, their aspect has been seriously changed by graffiti, which clearly endangers their preservation state and causes loss of their esthetic appearance and historic value. This damages seriously the self-esteem of residents who witness the continued and strong degradation of their cultural heritage. The aim of this work is to study the removal of graffiti from a characteristic stone which is used in Morelia (México) as the raw material for architectural monuments, using a high power diode laser treatment. We concluded that continuous wave regime leads to better results than modulated wave regime; additionally, a two laser passes process demonstrated a high performance.
We report our main results on the development of un-cooled microbolometers based on hydrogenated amorphous Germanium-Silicon (a-GexSiy:H) thermo-sensing films deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). Our research has been conducted to improve both, the structure of the devices (pixels) and the performance characteristics of the amorphous Germanium-Silicon thermosensing films.
Our motivation is to produce microbolometers with much better performance characteristics (larger thermal coefficient of resistance, larger conductivity and better stability) than those available in commercial microbolometer arrays, based on boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H,B).
As part of our latest research, we also report the study of what we believe is the next generation of thermosensing films based on Silicon and Geranium amorphous films with embedded nanocrystals in the amorphous matrix (polymorphous films). Those materials have several advantages over amorphous, as a lower defect density, better stability and better transport properties.
The isothermal oxidation-sulfidation of Fe-40Al based intermetallics alloys in N2/SO2 gas mixture at 625, 700 and 775°C were evaluated. Fe40Al, Fe40Al+0.1B, Fe40Al+0.1B+10Al2O3 alloys were produced by atomization and deposition. Isothermal gas exposition was reached during 48 hours. FeAl based alloys showed good sulfidation resistance, presenting both small weight gain and weight change fluctuations. At 625°C, the Fe40Al+0.1B alloy had the biggest weight gain; on the other hand the Fe40Al alloy exhibited the biggest sulfidation resistance. At 700 and 775°C, the Fe40Al+0.1B alloy presented the smallest weight gain, however Fe40Al alloy presented higher weight gain, that is to say, the smallest sulfidation resistance at those temperatures. The variation in the weight gain curves were discussed in terms of formation and detachment of sulfides, and by local attack on the alloy surface as the temperature increasing. The results are supplemented with characterization by SEM and analysis of X-rays dispersion.
Osteoarthritis is a very complex illness of the joints that affects cartilage and subcondral bone. At the last years, researching has been focused in the development and characterization of composite materials, evaluating their structural properties. Some o those composite materials are constituted by organic and inorganic compounds forming hybrids. These materials can improve their properties due to the interaction of reinforcement hard particles in the polymeric matrix. The interest on the composite biomaterials has been increased on the biomedical applications such as tissue regenerating based in synthetic polymers with biodegradable and biocompatible properties whose can be reinforced by calcium phosphates. In this sense, hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is often used for biological implants due its mineral phase similitude with bone microstructure and tissue compatibility. Similarly, polylactic acid (PLA) is a used polymer for implant applications due physicochemical and biocompatibility properties, and short degradation time also. In order to obtain a composite that can be used as a regenerating material on the osteoarthritis problem, in this work a (90/10 wt.%) polylactic/hydroxyapatite hybrid composite was produced by chemical synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, FT-IR and TGA/DSC techniques.