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The principle and practice of pro bono, or volunteer legal services for poor and other marginalized groups, is an increasingly important feature of civil justice systems around the world. Recent surveys have identified pro bono initiatives in more than eighty countries - including Colombia, Portugal, Nigeria, and Singapore - and the list keeps growing. Covering the spread of pro bono in across five continents, this book provides a unique comparative dataset permitting the first-ever analysis of pro bono's growing role in access to justice globally. The contributors are leading experts from around the world, whose chapters explore both the internal roots of and global influences on pro bono in transnational context. Global Pro Bono explores the dramatically expanding geographical and political reach of pro bono: documenting its essential contribution to bringing more justice to those on the margins, while underscoring its complex and contested meaning in different parts of the world.
This study evaluated the effect of roughage:concentrate (R:C) ratio associated with a variable particle size of physically effective neutral detergent fibre (peNDF8) in the forage (Tifton-85 hay) on the performance, carcass traits and meat quality of lambs. Seventy-two 4-month-old, non-castrated Santa Ines male lambs (23.5 ± 2.32 kg BW) were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement [two peNDF8 hay particle sizes (13 and 6 mm) and two R:C ratios (700:300 and 500:500 g/kg DM total)]. DMI, DM, NFC and TDN digestibility's, N-intake and N-faecal excretion were affected by the R:C ratio (P < 0.05). However, the N-retained was not affected by the studied variables (P > 0.05). It was observed an interaction (P < 0.05) between the peNDF8 and R:C ratios for final BW, average daily gain (ADG), colour parameters and pH 24 h. The lower roughage ratio provided greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of C14:1, C16:1–cis9, C18:1–cis9, ΣMUFA, Σn–6:Σn–3 and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic index, enzymatic activity Δ9desaturase-C16 and -C18. Lambs fed a lower roughage diet had improved performance and feed efficiency, however, presented reduced polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations in the meat, especially Σn–3 family. Higher roughage diet and larger peNDF8 particle size improved the concentrations of PUFA while decreased Σn–6:Σn–3 ratio in meat. Larger peNDF8 particle size associated with higher roughage proportion, have reduced animal performance however, it increased protein concentration, a* and C* colour parameter without affecting fatty acids profile of Longissimus lumborum muscle.
An adequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) plays a vital role in human health. Therefore, it is important to assess PUFA intakes in different populations and validate them with biomarkers, but only a few small studies are in paediatric populations. We calculated the dietary intake of PUFAs and their main food sources in children and assessed associations between reported PUFA intakes and plasma proportions. Dietary intakes of 7-year-old children (n=8,242) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were calculated from parental-completed food frequency questionnaire. Plasma PUFAs were measured in 5,571 children 8 months later and 4,380 children had complete dietary and plasma data. The association between dietary and plasma PUFAs proportions were estimated using Spearman’s correlation coefficients, quintile cross-classification and Cohen’s kappa coefficients. Mean total PUFA intake was 13.2g/day (sd4.2), contributing 6.5% of total energy intake; n-6 PUFA contributed 5.2% and n-3 PUFA 0.7%. The n-6:n-3 ratio was 7.9:1. Mean intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 35.7mg/day and 49.7mg/day, respectively. Most n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes were weakly correlated with their respective plasma lipids (0.07≤ r ≤0.16, p<0.001). The correlation between dietary and plasma DHA was stronger though (r=0.34, p<0.001), supported by a modest level of agreement between quintiles (k=0.32). The results indicate that the FFQ was able to reasonably rank the long-chain PUFA, DHA, in this paediatric population. Public health initiatives need to address the suboptimal ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and very low n-3 long-chain PUFA intakes in school-aged children in the UK.
The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the causative agent of the 2020 worldwide coronavirus pandemic. Antibody testing is useful for diagnosing historic infections of a disease in a population. These tests are also a helpful epidemiological tool for predicting how the virus spreads in a community, relating antibody levels to immunity and for assessing herd immunity. In the present study, SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins were recombinantly produced and used to analyse serum from individuals previously exposed, or not, to SARS-CoV-2. The nucleocapsid (Npro) and spike subunit 2 (S2Frag) proteins were identified as highly immunogenic, although responses to the former were generally greater. These two proteins were used to develop two quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that when used in combination resulted in a highly reliable diagnostic test. Npro and S2Frag-ELISAs could detect at least 10% more true positive coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases than the commercially available ARCHITECT test (Abbott). Moreover, our quantitative ELISAs also show that specific antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 proteins tend to wane rapidly even in patients who had developed severe disease. As antibody tests complement COVID-19 diagnosis and determine population-level surveillance during this pandemic, the alternative diagnostic we present in this study could play a role in controlling the spread of the virus.
In an ageing society, the preservation of health and function is becoming increasingly important. The present paper acknowledges that ageing is malleable and focuses on diets and key nutritional concerns later in life. It presents evidence for the importance of healthful dietary patterns and points towards specific nutritional concerns later in life and conveys three main messages: (1) considering health maintenance and malnutrition risk, both dietary quality in terms of healthful dietary patterns and dietary quantity are important later in life, (2) ageing-related changes in nutrient physiology and metabolism contribute to the risk of inadequacies or deficiencies for specific nutrients, e.g. vitamin D, vitamin B12 and protein and (3) that current food-based dietary guidelines propagate a shift into the direction of Mediterranean type of diets including more plant-based foods. Limited scientific evidence on nutritional requirements of older adults, along with envisaged shifts towards diets rich in plant foods, are challenges that need to be addressed in order to develop tailored nutritional recommendations and dietary guidance for older adults.
Cassia angustifolia Vahl. plant is used for many therapeutic purposes, for example, in people with constipation, skin diseases, including helminthic and parasitic infections. In our study, we demonstrated an amoebicidal activity of C. angustifolia extract against Acanthamoeba triangularis trophozoite at a micromolar level. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images displayed morphological changes in the Acanthamoeba trophozoite, which included the formation of pores in cell membrane and the membrane rupture. In addition to the amoebicidal activity, effects of the extract on surviving trophozoites were observed, which included cyst formation and vacuolization by a microscope and transcriptional expression of Acanthamoeba autophagy in response to the stress by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our data showed that the surviving trophozoites were not transformed into cysts and the trophozoite number with enlarged vacuole was not significantly different from that of untreated control. Molecular analysis data demonstrated that the mRNA expression of AcATG genes was slightly changed. Interestingly, AcATG16 decreased significantly at 12 h post treatment, which may indicate a transcriptional regulation by the extract or a balance of intracellular signalling pathways in response to the stress, whereas AcATG3 and AcATG8b remained unchanged. Altogether, these data reveal the anti-Acanthamoeba activity of C. angustifolia extract and the autophagic response in the surviving trophozoites under the plant extract pressure, along with data on the formation of cysts. These represent a promising plant for future drug development. However, further isolation and purification of an active compound and cytotoxicity against human cells are needed, including a study on the autophagic response at the protein level.
We investigated the effects of pathogens associated with subclinical intramammary infections on yield, composition and quality indicators of goat milk. By means of a longitudinal study, individual half udder milk samples (n = 132) were collected at different lactation periods and assessed for milk yield and physicochemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC) and microbiological culture. Staphylococci species accounted for the great majority of the isolates (96.1%). Intramammary infections significantly reduced fat and total solids in goat milk and increased both SCC and TBC. However, these indicators were significantly higher in udder halves affected by S. aureus compared with other staphylococci species.
Magnesium (Mg2+) plays an essential role in many biological processes. Mg2+ deficiency is therefore associated with a wide range of clinical effects including muscle cramps, fatigue, seizures and arrhythmias. To maintain sufficient Mg2+ levels, (re)absorption of Mg2+ in the intestine and kidney is tightly regulated. Genetic defects that disturb Mg2+ uptake pathways, as well as drugs interfering with Mg2+ (re)absorption cause hypomagnesemia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic and drug-induced Mg2+ deficiencies. This leads to the identification of four main mechanisms that are affected by hypomagnesemia-causing mutations or drugs: luminal transient receptor potential melastatin type 6/7-mediated Mg2+ uptake, paracellular Mg2+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, structural integrity of the distal convoluted tubule and Na+-dependent Mg2+ extrusion driven by the Na+/K+-ATPase. Our analysis demonstrates that genetic and drug-induced causes of hypomagnesemia share common molecular mechanisms. Targeting these shared pathways can lead to novel treatment options for patients with hypomagnesemia.
To determine changes and factors associated with child malnutrition, obesity in women and household food insecurity before and after the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic.
A prospective follow-up study.
In 2019, the baseline Urban Health and Nutrition Study 2019 (UHNS-2019) was conducted in 603 households, which were selected randomly from 30 clusters to represent underserved urban settlements in Colombo. In the present study, 35 % of households from the UHNS-2019 cohort were randomly selected for repeat interviews, 1 year after the baseline study and 6 months after COVID-19 pandemic in Sri Lanka. Height/length and weight of children and women were re-measured, household food insecurity was reassessed, and associated factors were gathered through interviewer-administered questionnaires. Differences in measurements at baseline and follow-up studies were compared.
A total of 207 households, comprising 127 women and 109 children were included.
The current prevalence of children with wasting and overweight was higher in the follow-up study than at baseline UHNS-2019 (18·3 % v. 13·7 %; P = 0·26 and 8·3 % v. 3·7 %; P = 0·12, respectively). There was a decrease in prevalence of child stunting (14·7 % v. 11·9 %; P = 0·37). A change was not observed in overall obesity in women, which was about 30·7 %. Repeated lockdown was associated with a significant reduction in food security from 57 % in UHNS-2019 to 30 % in the current study (P < 0·001).
There was an increase in wasting and overweight among children while women had a persistent high prevalence of obesity. This population needs suitable interventions to improve nutrition status of children and women to minimise susceptibility to COVID-19.
The retention of human milk (HM) fat in nasogastric probes of infusion pumps can be observed during the feed of infants unable to suck at the mother’s breast. The lack of homogenisation of HM could contribute to the fat holding. Therefore, the present study evaluated (i) the influence of homogenisation on milk fat retaining in infant feeding probes and (ii) the in vivo effect of the homogenisation on lipid absorption by Wistar rats. The animals were fed with HM treated following two processing conditions, that is, pasteurised and homogenised–pasteurised. The animals were randomly subdivided into four experimental groups: water-fed (control), pasteurised milk, homogenised–pasteurised milk and pasteurised–skimmed milk. The results of food consumption, mass body gain, corporate metrics and plasma blood levels of total cholesterol did not show any difference (P < 0·05) among the three types of HM used in the experiments. The liver, intestine and intra-abdominal adipose tissue of the four groups of animals presented normal and healthy histology. The composition of fatty acids in the brain tissue of animals fed with homogenised HM increased when compared with the groups fed with non-homogenised HM. These values were 11·08 % higher for arachidonic acids, 6·59 % for DAH and 47·92 % for nervous acids. The ingestion of homogenised HM promoted higher absorption of milk nutrients. Therefore, the addition of the homogenisation stage in HM processing could be an alternative to reduce fat retention in probes and to improve the lipids’ absorption in the body.
The long-term recovery rate for coronavirus disease 2019 related chemosensory disturbances has not yet been clarified.
Olfactory and gustatory functions were assessed with psychophysical tests in patients in the first seven days from coronavirus disease 2019 onset and one, two, three and six months after the first evaluation.
A total of 300 patients completed the study. The improvement in olfactory function was significant at the two-month follow up. At the end of the observation period, 27 per cent of the patients still experienced a persistent olfactory disturbance, including anosmia in 5 per cent of cases. As for taste, the improvement in the psychophysical scores was significant only between the baseline and the 30-day control. At the 6-month evaluation, 10 per cent of the patients presented with a persistent gustatory disturbance with an incidence of complete ageusia of 1 per cent.
Six months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019, about 6 per cent of patients still had a severe persistent olfactory or gustatory disturbance.
This study aimed to compare the necessary scutum defect for transmeatal visualisation of middle-ear landmarks between an endoscopic and microscopic approach.
Human cadaveric heads were used. In group 1, middle-ear landmarks were visualised by endoscope (group 1 endoscopic approach) and subsequently by microscope (group 1 microscopic approach following endoscopy). In group 2, landmarks were visualised solely microscopically (group 2 microscopic approach). The amount of resected bone was evaluated via computed tomography scans.
In the group 1 endoscopic approach, a median of 6.84 mm3 bone was resected. No statistically significant difference (Mann–Whitney U test, p = 0.163, U = 49.000) was found between the group 1 microscopic approach following endoscopy (median 17.84 mm3) and the group 2 microscopic approach (median 20.08 mm3), so these were combined. The difference between the group 1 endoscopic approach and the group 1 microscopic approach following endoscopy plus group 2 microscopic approach (median 18.16 mm3) was statistically significant (Mann–Whitney U test, p < 0.001, U = 18.000).
This study showed that endoscopic transmeatal visualisation of middle-ear landmarks preserves more of the bony scutum than a microscopic transmeatal approach.
Fertilization is an exceptionally specific cell recognition event that represents the culmination of a complex sequence of morphological and functional maturational events. In the case of the male gamete, this process is initiated by the commitment of spermatogonial stem cells to differentiate, sequentially forming spermatogonia, spermatocytes and eventually spermatozoa that are released into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules . In addition to meiotic divisions, this process encompasses extensive cytoplasmic, organelle and nuclear remodeling events, thus establishing the unique and highly polarized architecture of the mature spermatozoon. A key aspect of this phase of development is the modification and repositioning of the Golgi apparatus to form a highly specialized secretory organelle, known as the acrosome, overlying the anterior aspect of the sperm head. Upon release from the testes the functionally immature spermatozoa enter the epididymis where they are progressively remodeled and acquire both motility and the potential to fertilize an oocyte . This potential is eventually realized after passage through the female reproductive tract whereupon the ejaculated cells complete a suite of biochemical and biophysical changes known as capacitation . These successive phases of functional maturation culminate in the acquired ability to release the acrosomal contents, during an event known as the acrosome reaction. This unique exocytotic event facilitates sperm passage through the outer vestments of the oocyte and is essential for successful in vivo fertilization in all mammalian species, including the human . Consequently, failure of acrosomal exocytosis represents a common etiology in defective spermatozoa of male infertility patients that have failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) in a clinical setting; accounting for as much as 29 percent of unexplained male infertility cases [5, 6]. Much of our current mechanistic understanding of the acrosome reaction is grounded in the ability to stimulate this process in vitro using simple chemically defined media and the application of pharmacological interventions, and/or transgenic mouse models. Here, we discuss the biological significance of the acrosome reaction and the application of histochemical techniques that have been developed to study the progression and completion of this critical physiological event.
The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis (manifested as eosinophilic meningitis) in humans. Gastropod molluscs are used as intermediate hosts and rats of various species are definitive hosts of this parasite. In this study, we identified several environmental factors associated with the presence and abundance of terrestrial gastropods in an impoverished urban region in Brazil. We also found that body condition, age and presence of co-infection with other parasite species in urban Rattus norvegicus, as well as environmental factors were associated with the probability and intensity of A. cantonensis infection. The study area was also found to have a moderate prevalence of the nematode in rodents (33% of 168 individuals). Eight species of molluscs (577 individuals) were identified, four of which were positive for A. cantonensis. Our study indicates that the environmental conditions of poor urban areas (presence of running and standing water, sewage, humidity and accumulated rain and accumulation of construction materials) influenced both the distribution and abundance of terrestrial gastropods, as well as infected rats, contributing to the maintenance of the A. cantonensis transmission cycle in the area. Besides neuroangiostrongyliasis, the presence of these hosts may also contribute to susceptibility to other zoonoses.
To quantify the energy, nutrients-to-limit and total gram amount consumed and identify their top food sources consumed by Latin Americans.
Data from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS).
ELANS is a cross-sectional study representative of eight Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela.
Two 24-h dietary recalls on non-consecutive days were used to estimate usual dietary intake of 9218 participants with ages between 15–65 years. ‘What We Eat in America’ food classification system developed by United States Department of Agriculture was adapted and used to classify all food items consumed by the ELANS population. Food sources of energy, added sugars, SFA, Na and total gram amount consumed were identified and ranked based on percentage of contribution to intake of total amount.
Three-highest ranked food categories of total energy consumed were: rice (10·3%), yeast breads (6·9%), and turnovers and other grain-based items (6·8 %). Highest ranked food sources of total gram amount consumed were fruit drinks (9·6%), other 100% juice (9·3%) and rice (8·3%). Three highest ranked sources for added sugars were other 100% juice (24·1 %), fruit drinks (16·5%), and sugar and honey (12·4%). SFA ranked foods were turnovers and other grain-based (12·6 %), cheese (11·9%), and pizza (10·3%). Three top sources of Na were rice (13·9%), soups (9·1 %) and rice mixed dishes (7·3 %).
Identification of top sources of energy and nutrients-to-limit among Latin Americans is critical for designing strategies to help them meet nutrient recommendations within energy needs.
To describe the utility of sleep nasendoscopy in determining the level of upper airway obstruction compared to microlaryngotracheobronchoscopy.
A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary level paediatric hospital. Patients clinically diagnosed with upper airway obstruction warranting surgical intervention (i.e. with obstructive sleep apnoea or laryngomalacia) were included. These patients underwent sleep nasendoscopy in the anaesthetic room; microlaryngotracheobronchoscopy was subsequently performed and findings were compared.
Twenty-seven patients were included in the study. Sleep nasendoscopy was able to induce stridor or stertor, and to detect obstruction at the level of palate and pharynx, including tongue base collapse, that was not observed with microlaryngotracheobronchoscopy. Only 47 per cent of patients who had prolapse or indrawing of arytenoids on sleep nasendoscopy had similar findings on microlaryngotracheobronchoscopy. However, microlaryngotracheobronchoscopy was better in diagnosing shortened aryepiglottic folds.
This study demonstrates the utility of sleep nasendoscopy in determining the level and severity of obstruction by mimicking physiological sleep dynamics of the upper airway.
This chapter examines the applicable laws surrounding Brazil’s local content (LC) requirements along with the efficacy of such LC requirements. In doing so, this chapter first examines the history of LC rules through different stages of petroleum production in Brazil, mainly by examining various bid rounds. While not every bid round saw different local content, each round can be grouped into periods, which show a pendular behavior (from less to more stringent regulation). Further, from this background, an analysis of successes and failures of these local content policies is given, including the effects on sustainable development in Brazil.
As with any other country, LC rules in Brazil are a powerful tool to bolster the local economy. Brazil teaches positive and negative lessons concerning local content policies. Positive lessons include an efficient certified system to increase compliance and reduce governmental administration procedures. This increased the development of certain sectors, such as the naval and related industries. Negative lessons include unrealistic parameters and pervasive incentives to bid unrealistic local content terms. Another negative example might be the lack of distinction from small to large projects. Overall, Brazilian local content is devolved but still needs improvements and a strategic long-term plan to better achieve sustainable development goals.
Recent simulations indicate that streamwise-preferential porous materials have the potential to reduce drag in wall-bounded turbulent flows (Gómez-de-Segura & García-Mayoral, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 875, 2019, pp. 124–172). This paper extends the resolvent formulation to study the effect of such anisotropic permeable substrates on turbulent channel flow. Under the resolvent formulation, the Fourier-transformed Navier–Stokes equations are interpreted as a linear forcing–response system. The nonlinear terms are considered the endogenous forcing in the system that gives rise to a velocity and pressure response. A gain-based decomposition of the forcing–response transfer function – the resolvent operator – identifies response modes (resolvent modes) that are known to reproduce important structural and statistical features of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The effect of permeable substrates is introduced in this framework using the volume-averaged Navier–Stokes equations and a generalized form of Darcy's law. Substrates with high streamwise permeability and low spanwise permeability are found to suppress the forcing–response gain for the resolvent mode that serves as a surrogate for the energetic near-wall cycle. This reduction in mode gain is shown to be consistent with the drag reduction trends predicted by theory and observed in numerical simulations. Simulation results indicate that drag reduction is limited by the emergence of spanwise rollers resembling Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices beyond a threshold value of wall-normal permeability. The resolvent framework also predicts the conditions in which such energetic spanwise-coherent rollers emerge. These findings suggest that a limited set of resolvent modes can serve as the building blocks for computationally efficient models that enable the design and optimization of permeable substrates for passive turbulence control.