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To examine associations between diet and risk of developing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Prospective cohort with a median follow-up of 15·8 years. Baseline diet was measured using a FFQ. GERD was defined as self-reported current or history of daily heartburn or acid regurgitation beginning at least 2 years after baseline. Sex-specific logistic regressions were performed to estimate OR for GERD associated with diet quality scores and intakes of nutrients, food groups and individual foods and beverages. The effect of substituting saturated fat for monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat on GERD risk was examined.
A cohort of 20 926 participants (62 % women) aged 40–59 years at recruitment between 1990 and 1994.
For men, total fat intake was associated with increased risk of GERD (OR 1·05 per 5 g/d; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09; P = 0·016), whereas total carbohydrate (OR 0·89 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·98; P = 0·010) and starch intakes (OR 0·84 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·94; P = 0·005) were associated with reduced risk. Nutrients were not associated with risk for women. For both sexes, substituting saturated fat for polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat did not change risk. For both sexes, fish, chicken, cruciferous vegetables and carbonated beverages were associated with increased risk, whereas total fruit and citrus were associated with reduced risk. No association was observed with diet quality scores.
Diet is a possible risk factor for GERD, but food considered as triggers of GERD symptoms might not necessarily contribute to disease development. Potential differential associations for men and women warrant further investigation.
Healthy young adults often demonstrate a leftward spatial bias called “pseudoneglect” which often diminishes with aging. One hypothesis for this phenomenon is an age-related deterioration in right hemisphere functions (right hemi-aging). If true, then a greater rightward bias should be evident on all spatial attention tasks regardless of content. Another hypothesis is a decrease in asymmetrical hemispheric activation with age (HAROLD). If true, older participants may show reduced bias in all spatial tasks, regardless of leftward or rightward biasing of specific spatial content.
Seventy right-handed healthy participants, 33 younger (21–40) and 37 older (60–78), were asked to bisect solid and character-letter lines as well as to perform left and right trisections of solid lines.
Both groups deviated toward the left on solid line bisections and left trisections. Both groups deviated toward the right on right trisections and character line bisections. In all tasks, the older participants were more accurate than the younger participants.
The finding that older participants were more accurate than younger participants across all bisection and trisection conditions suggests a decrease in the asymmetrical hemispheric activation of these specialized networks important in the allocation of contralateral spatial attention or spatial action intention.
The stability properties of a natural convection boundary layer adjacent to an isothermally heated vertical wall, with Prandtl number 0.71, are numerically investigated in the configuration of a temporally evolving parallel flow. The instantaneous linear stability of the flow is first investigated by solving the eigenvalue problem with a quasi-steady assumption, whereby the unsteady base flow is frozen in time. Temporal responses of the discrete perturbation modes are numerically obtained by solving the two-dimensional linearized disturbance equations using a ‘frozen’ base flow as an initial-value problem at various
is the Grashof number based on the velocity integral boundary layer thickness
. The resultant amplification rates of the discrete modes are compared with the quasi-steady eigenvalue analysis, and both two-dimensional and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the temporally evolving flow. The amplification rate predicted by the linear theory compares well with the result of direct numerical simulation up to a transition point. The extent of the linear regime where the perturbations linearly interact with the base flow is thus identified. The value of the transition
, according to the three-dimensional DNS results, is dependent on the initial perturbation amplitude. Beyond the transition point, the DNS results diverge from the linear stability predictions as nonlinear mechanisms become important.
Introduction: Opioid side effects are common when treating chronic pain. However, the rate of opioid side effects for acute pain has rarely been examined, particularly in the post emergency department (ED) setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term incidence of opioid induced side effects (constipation, nausea/vomiting, dizziness, and drowsiness) in patients discharged from the ED with an opioid prescription. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of patients aged ≥18 years that visited the ED for an acute pain condition (≤ 2 weeks) and were discharged with an opioid prescription. Patients completed a 14-day diary assessing daily pain medication use and side effects. Results: Mean age of the 386 patients included was 55 ± 16 years; 50% were women. During the 2-week follow-up, 80% of patients consumed at least one dose of opioids. Among the patients who used opioids, 38% (95%CI: 33-48) reported constipation, 27% (95%CI:22-32) nausea/vomiting, 30% (95%CI:25-35) dizziness, 51% (95%CI:45-57) drowsiness, and 77% (95%CI:72-82) reported any side effects. Adjusting for age, sex, and pain condition, patients who used opioids were more likely to report any side effect (OR 7.5, 95%CI:4.3-13.3) and constipation (OR 7.5, 95%CI:3.1-17.9). A significant dose response effect was observed for constipation but not for the other side effects. Nausea/vomiting (OR 2.0, 95%CI:1.1-3.6) and dizziness (OR 1.9, 95%CI:1.1-3.4) were associated with oxycodone compared to morphine. Conclusion: Similar to chronic pain, opioid side effects are highly prevalent during short-term treatment for acute pain. Physicians should be aware and inform patients about those side effects.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of directed and sustained attention on the allocation of visuospatial attention. Healthy people often have left lateral and upward vertical spatial attentional biases. However, it is not known whether there will be an increase in bias toward the attended portion of the stimulus when volitional spatial attention is allocated to a portion of a stimulus, whether there are asymmetrical spatial alterations of these biases, and how sustained attention influences these biases. Methods: We assessed spatial bias in 36 healthy, right-handed participants using a variant of horizontal and vertical line bisections. Participants were asked to focus on one or the other end of vertical or horizontal lines or entire vertical or horizontal lines, and then to bisect the line either immediately or after a 20 second delay. Results: We found a significant main effect of attentional focus and an interaction between attentional focus and prolonged viewing with delayed bisection. Focusing on a certain portion of the line resulting in a significant deviation toward the attended portion and prolonged viewing of the line prior to bisection significantly enhanced the degree of deviation toward the attended portion. Conclusions: The enhanced bias with directed and sustained attention may be useful modifications of the line bisection test, particularly in clinical populations. Thus, future studies should determine whether prolonged viewing with delayed bisection and spatially focused attention reveals attentional biases in patients with hemispheric lesions who perform normally on the traditional line bisection test. (JINS, 2019, 25, 65–71)
Introduction: Outside of key conditions such as cardiac arrest and trauma, little is known about the epidemiology of mortality of all transported EMS patients. The objective of this study is to describe characteristics of EMS patients who after transport die in a health care facility. Methods: EMS transport events over one year (April, 2015-16) from a BLS/ALS system serving an urban/rural population of approximately 2 million were linked with in-hospital datasets to determine proportion of all-cause in-hospital mortality by Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) determinant (911 call triage system), age in years (>=18 yrs. - adult, <=17 yrs. - pediatric), sex, day of week, season, time (in six hour periods), and emergency department Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS). The MPDS card, patient chief complaint, and ED diagnosis category (International Classification of Disease v.10 - Canadian) with the highest proportion of mortality are also reported. Analyses included two-sided t-test or chi-square with alpha <0.05. Results: A total of 239,534 EMS events resulted in 159,507 patient transports; 141,114 were included for analysis after duplicate removal (89.1% linkage), with 127,867 reporting final healthcare system outcome. There were 4,269 who died (3.3%; 95%CI 3.2%, 3.4%). The proportion of mortality by MPDS determinant was, from most to least critical 911 call, Echo (7.3%), Delta (37.2%), Charlie (31.3%), Bravo (5.8%), Alpha (18.3%), and Omega (0.3%). For adults the mean age of survivors was less than non-survivors (57.7 vs. 75.8; p<0.001), but pediatric survivors were older than non-survivors (8.7 vs. 2.8; p<0.001). There were more males that died than females (53.0% vs. 47.0%; p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the day of week (p=0.592), but there was by season with the highest mortality in winter (27.1%; p=0.045). The highest mortality occurred with patients presenting to EMS between 0600-1200 hours (34.6%), and the lowest between 0000-0600 hours (11.8%; p<0.001). Mortality by CTAS was category 1 (27.1%), 2 (36.7%), 3 (29.9%), 4 (4.3%), and 5 (0.5%). The highest mortality was seen in MPDS card 26-Sick Person (specific diagnosis) (19.1%), chief complaint shortness of breath (19.3%), and ED diagnoses pertaining to the circulatory system (31.1%). Conclusion: Significant all-cause in-hospital mortality differences were found between event, patient, and clinical characteristics. These data provide foundational and hypothesis generating knowledge regarding mortality in transported EMS patients that can be used to guide research and training. Future research should further explore the characteristics of those that access health care through the EMS system.
Introduction: Community Paramedics (CPs) require access to timely blood analysis in the field to guide treatment and transport decisions. Point of care testing (POCT), as opposed to traditional laboratory analysis, may offer a solution, but limited research exists on CP POCT. The objective of this study is to compare the validity of two POCT devices (Abbott i-STAT® and Alere epoc®) and their use by CPs in the community. Methods: In a CP programme responding to 6,000 annual patient care events, a split sample validation of POCT against traditional laboratory analysis for seven analytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and glucose) was conducted on a consecutive sample of patients. The difference of proportion of discrepant results between POCT and laboratory was compared using a two sample proportion test. Usability was analysed by survey of CP experience, an expert heuristic evaluation of devices, a review of device-logged errors, coded observations of POCT use during quality control testing, and a linear mixed effects model of Systems Usability Scale (SUS) adjusted for CP clinical and POCT experience. Results: Of 1,649 CP calls for service screened for enrollment, 174 had a blood draw, with 108 patient care encounters (62.1%) enrolled from 73 participants. Participants had a mean age of 58.7 years (SD16.3); 49% were female. In 4 of 646 (0.6%) individual comparisons, POCT reported a critical value that the laboratory did not; with no statistically significant difference in the number of discrepant critical values reported with epoc® compared to i-STAT®. There were no instances of the laboratory reporting a critical value when POCT did not. In 88 of 1,046 (8.4%) individual comparisons, the a priori defined acceptable difference between POCT and the laboratory was exceeded; occurring more often in epoc® (10.7%;95%CI:8.1%,13.3%) compared to i-STAT® (6.1%;95%CI:4.1%,8.2%)(p=0.007). Eighteen of 19 CP surveys were returned, with 11/18 (61.1%) preferring i-STAT® over epoc®. The i-STAT® had a higher mean SUS score (higher usability) compared to the epoc® (84.0/100 vs. 59.6/100; p=0.011). Fewer field blood analysis device-logged errors occurred in i-STAT® (7.8%;95%CI:2.9%,12.7%) compared to epoc® (15.5%;95%CI:9.3%,21.7%) although not statistically significant (p=0.063). Conclusion: CP programs can expect valid results from POCT. Usability assessment suggests a preference for i-STAT.
The controls on rapid surface lake drainage on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) remain uncertain, making it challenging to incorporate lake drainage into models of GrIS hydrology, and so to determine the ice-dynamic impact of meltwater reaching the ice-sheet bed. Here, we first use a lake area and volume tracking algorithm to identify rapidly draining lakes within West Greenland during summer 2014. Second, we derive hydrological, morphological, glaciological and surface-mass-balance data for various factors that may influence rapid lake drainage. Third, these factors are used within Exploratory Data Analysis to examine existing hypotheses for rapid lake drainage. This involves testing for statistical differences between the rapidly and non-rapidly draining lake types, as well as examining associations between lake size and the potential controlling factors. This study shows that the two lake types are statistically indistinguishable for almost all factors investigated, except lake area. Thus, we are unable to recommend an empirically supported, deterministic alternative to the fracture area threshold parameter for modelling rapid lake drainage within existing surface-hydrology models of the GrIS. However, if improved remotely sensed datasets (e.g. ice-velocity maps, climate model outputs) were included in future research, it may be possible to detect the causes of rapid drainage.
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) continues to produce a significant burden of disease in New Zealand (NZ) Māori and Pacific peoples. Serious limitations in national surveillance data mean that accurate case totals cannot be generated. Given the changing epidemiology of ARF in NZ and the major national rheumatic fever prevention programme (2012–2017), we updated our previous likely true case number estimates using capture–recapture analyses. Aims were to estimate the likely true incidence of ARF in NZ and comment on the changing ability to detect cases. Data were obtained from national hospitalisation and notification databases. The Chapman Estimate partially adjusted for bias. An estimated 2342 likely true new cases arose from 1997 to 2015, giving a mean annual incidence of 2·9 per 100 000 (95% CI 2·5–3·5). Compared with the pre-intervention (2009–2011) baseline incidence (3·4 per 100 000, 95% CI 2·9–4·0), the likely true 2015 incidence declined 44%. Large gaps in data completeness are slowly closing. During the period 2012–2015, 723 cases were identified; 83·8% of notifications were matched to hospitalisation data, and 87·2% of hospitalisations matched to notifications. Despite this improvement, clinicians need to remain aware of the need to notify atypical patients. A possible unintended consequence of the national ARF prevention programme is increased misdiagnosis.
The inland advance of supraglacial lakes (SGLs) towards the interior regions of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) may have implications for the water volumes reaching the subglacial drainage system, and could consequently affect long-term ice-sheet dynamics. Here, we investigate changes to the areas, volumes and elevation distributions of over 8000 manually delineated SGLs using 44 Landsat images of a 6200 km2 sector of north-west Greenland over three decades (1985–2016). Our results show that SGLs have advanced to higher maximum (+418 m) and mean (+299 m) elevations, and that there has been a near-doubling of total regional SGL areas and volumes over the study period, accelerating after 2000. These changes were primarily caused by an increased SGL area and volume at high (≥1200 m a.s.l.) elevations, where SGL coverage increased by over 2750% during the study period. Many of the observed changes, particularly the post-2000 accelerations, were driven by changes to regional surface-temperature anomalies. This study demonstrates the past and accelerating response of the GrIS's hydrological system due to climatic warming, indicating an urgent need to understand whether the increasingly inland SGLs will be capable of hydrofracture in the future, thus determining their potential implications for ice-sheet dynamics.
The structure of a series of lanthanide iron cobalt perovskite oxides, R(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 (R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd), have been investigated. The space group of these compounds was confirmed to be orthorhombic Pnma (No. 62), Z = 4. From Pr to Gd, the lattice parameter a varies from 5.466 35(13) Å to 5.507 10(13) Å, b from 7.7018(2) to 7.561 75(13) Å, c from 5.443 38(10) to 5.292 00(8) Å, and unit-cell volume V from 229.170(9) Å3 to 220.376(9) Å3, respectively. While the trend of V follows the trend of the lanthanide contraction, the lattice parameter “a” increases as the ionic radius r(R3+) decreases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy confirm that Fe and Co are disordered over the octahedral sites. The structure distortion of these compounds is evidenced in the tilt angles θ, ϕ, and ω, which represent rotations of an octahedron about the pseudocubic perovskite p, p, and p axes. All three tilt angles increase across the lanthanide series (for R = Pr to R = Gd: θ increases from 12.3° to 15.2°, ϕ from 7.5° to 15.8°, and ω from 14.4° to 21.7°), indicating a greater octahedral distortion as r(R3+) decreases. The bond valence sum for the sixfold (Fe/Co) site and the eightfold R site of R(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 reveal no significant bond strain. Density Functional Theory calculations for Pr(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 support the disorder of Fe and Co and suggest that this compound to be a narrow band gap semiconductor. XRD patterns of the R(Fe0.5Co0.5)O3 samples were submitted to the Powder Diffraction File.
Polyphenol- and fibre-rich foods (PFRF) have the potential to affect postprandial glycaemic responses by reducing glucose absorption, and thus decreasing the glycaemic response of foods when consumed together. A randomised, single-blind, cross-over study was conducted on sixteen healthy volunteers to test whether PFRF could attenuate postprandial blood glucose in healthy volunteers when added to a source of carbohydrate (starch in bread). This is the first study to examine the effects of a meal comprised of components to inhibit each stage of the biochemical pathway, leading up to the appearance of glucose in the blood. The volunteers were fasted and attended four visits: two control visits (bread, water, balancing sugars) and two test visits (single and double dose of PFRF) where they consumed bread, water and PFRF. Blood samples were collected at 0 (fasted), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after consumption. The PFRF components were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential in vitro. Plasma glucose was lower after consumption of both doses compared with controls: lower dose, change in mean incremental areas under the glucose curves (IAUC)=−27·4 (sd 7·5) %, P<0·001; higher dose, IAUC=−49·0 (sd 15·3) %, P<0·001; insulin IAUC was also attenuated by−46·9 (sd 13·4) %, P<0·01. Consistent with this, the polyphenol components of the PFRF inhibited α-amylase (green tea, strawberry, blackberry and blackcurrant) and α-glucosidase (green tea) activities in vitro. The PFRF have a pronounced and significant lowering effect on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in humans, due in part to inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as glucose transport.
To investigate relationships between mortality and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxyergocalciferol (25(OH)D2).
Case–cohort study within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS). We measured 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in archived dried blood spots by LC–MS/MS. Cox regression was used to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HR), with adjustment for confounders.
The MCCS included 29 206 participants, who at recruitment in 1990–1994 were aged 40–69 years, had dried blood spots collected and no history of cancer. For the present study we selected participants who died by 31 December 2007 (n 2410) and a random sample (sub-cohort, n 2996).
The HR per 25 nmol/l increment in concentration of 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 were 0·86 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·96; P=0·007) and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·77, 0·95; P=0·003), respectively. Of 5108 participants, sixty-three (1·2 %) had detectable 25(OH)D2; their mean 25(OH)D concentration was 11·9 (95 % CI 7·3, 16·6) nmol/l higher (P<0·001). The HR for detectable 25(OH)D2 was 1·80 (95 % CI 1·09, 2·97; P=0·023); for those with detectable 25(OH)D2, the HR per 25 nmol/l increment in 25(OH)D was 1·06 (95 % CI 0·87, 1·29; P interaction=0·02). HR were similar for participants who reported being in good, very good or excellent health four years after recruitment.
Total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 concentrations were inversely associated with mortality. The finding that the inverse association for 25(OH)D was restricted to those with no detectable 25(OH)D2 requires confirmation in populations with higher exposure to ergocalciferol.
The focal article by Bergman and Jean (2016) raises an important issue by documenting the underrepresentation of nonprofessional and nonmanagerial workers in industrial and organizational (I-O) research. They defined workers as, “people who were not executive, professional or managerial employees; who were low- to medium-skill; and/or who were wage earners rather than salaried” (p. 89). This definition encompasses a wide range of employee samples: from individuals working in blue-collar skilled trades like electricians and plumbers to police officers, soldiers, and call center representatives to low-skill jobs such as fast food, tollbooth operators, and migrant day workers. Because there is considerable variability in the pay, benefits, skill level, autonomy, job security, schedule flexibility, and working conditions that define these workers’ experiences, a more fine-grained examination of who these workers are is necessary to understand the scope of the problem and the specific subpopulations of workers represented (or not) in existing I-O research.
Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) have substantial negative impact on the quality of human life. Both, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling in SZ and BD postmortem brains [and genome-wide association studies (GWAS)] have implicated miRNAs in disease etiology. Here, we aim to determine whether significant GWAS signals observed in the Psychiatric Genetic Consortium (PGC) are enriched for miRNAs.
A two-stage approach was used to determine whether association signals from PGC affect miRNAs: (i) statistical assessment of enrichment using a Simes test and sum of squares test (SST) and (ii) biological evidence that quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping to known miRNA genes affect their expression in an independent sample of 78 postmortem brains from the Stanley Medical Research Institute.
A total of 2567 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (R2 > 0.8) were mapped locally, within 1 Mb, to all known miRNAs (miRBase v. 21). We show robust enrichment for SZ- and BD-related SNPs with miRNAs using Simes (SZ: p ≤ 0.0023, BD: p ≤ 0.038), which remained significant after adjusting for background inflation in SZ (empirical p = 0.018) and approached significance in BD (empirical p = 0.07). At a false discovery rate of 10%, we identified a total of 32 eQTLs to influence miRNA expression; 11 of these overlapped with BD.
Our approach of integrating PGC findings with eQTL results can be used to generate specific hypotheses regarding the role of miRNAs in SZ and BD.
Our aim was to describe the epidemiology and incidence of community-onset invasive S. aureus disease in children presenting to our hospital, and to compare the clonal complexes and virulence genes of S. aureus strains causing invasive and non-invasive disease. The virulence gene repertoire of invasive disease isolates was characterized using DNA microarray and compared with the virulence gene repertoire of non-invasive S. aureus isolates. Over the study period, 163 children had an invasive S. aureus infection. There was no difference in the distribution of clonal complexes or in the prevalence of genes encoding virulence factors between invasive and non-invasive isolates. Future research should include a strong focus on identifying the host and environmental factors that, along with organism virulence factors, are contributing to the patterns of invasive S. aureus disease observed in New Zealand.