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Drop coalescence occurs through the rapid growth of a liquid bridge that connects the two drops. At early times after contact, the bridge dynamics is typically self-similar, with details depending on the geometry and viscosity of the liquid. In this paper we analyse the coalescence of two-dimensional viscous drops that float on a quiescent deep pool; such drops are called liquid lenses. The analysis is based on the thin-sheet equations, which were recently shown to accurately capture experiments of liquid lens coalescence. It is found that the bridge dynamics follows a self-similar solution at leading order, but, depending on the large-scale boundary conditions on the drop, significant corrections may arise to this solution. This dynamics is studied in detail using numerical simulations and through matched asymptotics. We show that the liquid lens coalescence can involve a global translation of the drops, a feature that is confirmed experimentally.
There are different clinical forms combining anxiety and depression and it is essential to identify them because they will require different management. Among these clinical forms, there is that including anxiety as a symptom within the depressive episode: the anxious depression.
The objective is to find the characteristics of this anxious depression.
We conducted a literature review on the PubMed® site giving access to the MEDLINE® database, as well as on the Google Scholar® search engine and retained 127 articles.
By studying anxiety as a symptom of the depression, we identify on the pathophysiological level different neurobiological mechanisms (neuroanatomical, biological, immunological and endocrinological) involved in types of symptoms of different anxiety. Thus, by adopting a dimensional point of view, we can say that there are various anxiety symptoms which can be included in multiple forms of anxiety within the depression: psychic anxiety (anxiety and irritability), somatic anxiety (hypochondria, sweating, cardiological, respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms), motor anxiety (agitation), anxious arousal (somatic anxiety, fear, panic) or anxious apprehension (anticipatory anxiety and worry). The prognosis which emerges from it is of a more pejorative evolution, and has specificities on which an increased attention is required, such as suicidal behavior which is more frequently described for example. The treatment must be psychotherapeutic, sociotherapeutic, and medication by antidepressant treatment, with SSRIs in the first line.
It is therefore essential to identify the clinical presentation of the anxious depression because it has specific semiological, neurobiological, prognostic and therapeutic characteristics.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
Infant neurodevelopment is a complex process which may be affected by different events during pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). We conducted a prospective cohort study to compare the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in infants born to mothers with and without HDP at six months of age. Participants attended the Health Observatory of Instituto de Desarrollo e Investigaciones Pediátricas “Prof. Dr. Fernando E. Viteri” during 2018 and 2019. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development—Third Edition (Bayley-III). Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney test. Of the 132 participating infants, 68 and 64 were born to mothers with and without HDP, respectively. At six months, the prevalence of risk of neurodevelopmental delay was significantly higher in infants born to mothers with than without HDP (27.9% vs. 9.4%; p = 0.008) (odds ratio, 3.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.30; 12.28). In conclusion, infants born to mothers with HDP had three times increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay at six months of age.
We investigated the effects of pathogens associated with subclinical intramammary infections on yield, composition and quality indicators of goat milk. By means of a longitudinal study, individual half udder milk samples (n = 132) were collected at different lactation periods and assessed for milk yield and physicochemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC) and microbiological culture. Staphylococci species accounted for the great majority of the isolates (96.1%). Intramammary infections significantly reduced fat and total solids in goat milk and increased both SCC and TBC. However, these indicators were significantly higher in udder halves affected by S. aureus compared with other staphylococci species.
Psychiatry is facing major challenges during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID)-19 pandemic. These challenges involve its actual and perceived role within the medical system, in particular how psychiatric hospitals can maintain their core mission of attending to people with mental illness while at the same time providing relief to overstretched general medicine services. Although psychiatric disorders comprise the leading cause of the global burden of disease, mental healthcare has been deemphasised in the wake of the onslaught of the pandemic: to make room for emergency care, psychiatric wards have been downsized, clinics closed, psychiatric support systems discontinued and so on. To deal with this pressing issue, we developed a pandemic contingency plan with the aim to contain, decelerate and, preferably, avoid transmission of COVID-19 and to enable and maintain medical healthcare for patients with mental disorders.
To describe our plan as an example of how a psychiatric hospital can share in providing acute care in a healthcare system facing an acute and highly infectious pandemic like COVID-19 and at the same time provide support for people with mental illness, with or without a COVID-19 infection.
This was a descriptive study.
The plan was based on the German national pandemic strategy and several legal recommendations and was implemented step by step on the basis of the local COVID-19 situation. In addition, mid- and long-term plans were developed for coping with the aftermath of the pandemic.
The plan enabled the University Hospital to maintain medical healthcare for patients with mental disorders. It has offered the necessary flexibility to adapt its implementation to the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. The plan is designed to serve as an easily adaptable blueprint for psychiatric hospitals around the world.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing cause of chronic liver disease that accompanies obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Excess fructose consumption can initiate or exacerbate NAFLD in part due to a consequence of impaired hepatic fructose metabolism. Preclinical data emphasized that fructose-induced altered gut microbiome, increased gut permeability, and endotoxemia play an important role in NAFLD, but human studies are sparse. The present study aimed to determine if two weeks of excess fructose consumption significantly alters gut microbiota or permeability in humans.
We performed a pilot double-blind, cross-over, metabolic unit study in 10 subjects with obesity (body mass index [BMI] 30–40 mg/kg/m2). Each arm provided 75 grams of either fructose or glucose added to subjects’ individual diets for 14 days, substituted isocalorically for complex carbohydrates, with a 19-day wash-out period between arms. Total fructose intake provided in the fructose arm of the study totaled a mean of 20.1% of calories. Outcome measures included fecal microbiota distribution, fecal metabolites, intestinal permeability, markers of endotoxemia, and plasma metabolites.
Routine blood, uric acid, liver function, and lipid measurements were unaffected by the fructose intervention. The fecal microbiome (including Akkermansia muciniphilia), fecal metabolites, gut permeability, indices of endotoxemia, gut damage or inflammation, and plasma metabolites were essentially unchanged by either intervention.
In contrast to rodent preclinical findings, excess fructose did not cause changes in the gut microbiome, metabolome, and permeability as well as endotoxemia in humans with obesity fed fructose for 14 days in amounts known to enhance NAFLD.
Amid public health concerns over climate change, “precision public health” (PPH) is emerging in next generation approaches to practice. These novel methods promise to augment public health operations by using ever larger and more robust health datasets combined with new tools for collecting and analyzing data. Precision strategies to protecting the public health could more effectively or efficiently address the systemic threats of climate change, but may also propagate or exacerbate health disparities for the populations most vulnerable in a changing climate. How PPH interventions collect and aggregate data, decide what to measure, and analyze data pose potential issues around privacy, neglecting social determinants of health, and introducing algorithmic bias into climate responses. Adopting a health justice framework, guided by broader social and climate justice tenets, can reveal principles and policy actions which may guide more responsible implementation of PPH in climate responses.
Anhedonia – a diminished interest in, or ability to experience pleasure from, common rewarding stimuli – is implicated in addictive behaviors. Integrative reviews of extant research on the role of anhedonia in understanding addictive behaviors are dated and overlook nonsubstance addictions. This chapter reviews the anhedonia construct, describes theoretical models of mechanisms linking anhedonia to addiction, summarizes and synthesizes the empirical evidence on anhedonia in addictive behaviors in humans, and proposes future research directions. From the literature review and integration, it is concluded that: (1) anhedonia may be a risk factor and consequence of addictive behaviors, (2) anhedonia may increase motivation to engage in addictive behaviors to offset deficient pleasure, and (3) anhedonia is generally correlated with onset, escalation, persistence, and relapse to a variety of addictive behaviors in prior research. Addictive agents, intervention applications, and other topics overlooked in the study of anhedonia in addictive behaviors warrant further inquiry to advance addiction science and practice.
Implantable neural interfaces are important tools to accelerate neuroscience research and translate clinical neurotechnologies. The promise of a bidirectional communication link between the nervous system of humans and computers is compelling, yet important materials challenges must be first addressed to improve the reliability of implantable neural interfaces. This perspective highlights recent progress and challenges related to arguably two of the most common failure modes for implantable neural interfaces: (1) compromised barrier layers and packaging leading to failure of electronic components; (2) encapsulation and rejection of the implant due to injurious tissue–biomaterials interactions, which erode the quality and bandwidth of signals across the biology–technology interface. Innovative materials and device design concepts could address these failure modes to improve device performance and broaden the translational prospects of neural interfaces. A brief overview of contemporary neural interfaces is presented and followed by recent progress in chemistry, materials, and fabrication techniques to improve in vivo reliability, including novel barrier materials and harmonizing the various incongruences of the tissue–device interface. Challenges and opportunities related to the clinical translation of neural interfaces are also discussed.
Many plant bugs (Miridae) are generalist herbivores that feed on multiple host species. The reasons these bugs move across hosts and the behavioural mechanisms responsible for their retention at specific hosts remain elusive. Green mirids (Creontiades dilutus) are endemic to Australia. These insects are important pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and even in low numbers can cause substantial damage to crops. These bugs are also present in relatively much higher numbers on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) planted alongside cotton fields, and evidence shows they move across these crops in both directions. Observations of these highly mobile insects in the field are challenging, but indirect evidence suggests that they may be nocturnal. This study evaluated: (1) the diel (24 h) period in which C. dilutus adults were most active, (2) whether they respond to plant volatiles immediately prior to landing on host substrates, and (3) if their presence on a host is in response to attraction or arrestment cues. The results suggest that C. dilutus bugs are typically most active early in the evenings, after remaining motionless during the day (unless disturbed). Their movement (at night) was arrested by hosts prior to touching plant tissues. There was no evidence to suggest that these bugs are attracted by volatiles beyond 2 cm. These outcomes demonstrate that insect behaviours need to be investigated within their typical activity periods, and that arrestment cues possibly play a central role in the host finding process of generalist C. dilutus and probably, therefore, other mirid species.
Recent evidence points to relationships between intra-specific seed mass variation and viability loss in response to ageing stress. However, little is known about how seed quality may change temporally in response to such stress. Here we examined seed–water relations of mass-separated Rudbeckia mollis seeds to better understand physiological status among mass classes. We then evaluated seed viability and vigour changes in response to various storage conditions or post-storage vigour tests (a 41°C, 75% RH stress for up to 45 d). We found similar pre-storage physiology among mass classes. However, seeds of lower mass deteriorated up to 1.5-fold faster than heavier seeds under certain conditions. Stressing seeds after storage resulted in distinct vigour differences among mass classes. For example, vigour in lower mass seeds tended to decline more compared to heavier seeds following storage in a climate-controlled room. Alternatively, vigour loss varied among mass classes following storage in a non-climate-controlled shed. Our results highlight the importance of distinguishing between pre-sowing storage and post-storage vigour effects when quantifying relative levels of viability loss among seeds of different mass. Furthermore, differential responses to storage and ageing stress among mass classes may have important implications for post-storage regeneration and subsequent population dynamics.
Female and male alcohol dependent patients present an inhomogeneous group regarding to the drinking outcome. Stress, as well as stress-coping-styles are relevant predictive factors for the progress of alcohol dependence.
Social data, data of drinking behaviour, stress-styles and cortisol concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 130 patients with alcohol dependence (35F and 95M) before and after inpatient treatment.
The age of onset alcohol dependence, the amount of alcohol consumption since last 3 months, the responsibility for education from children, living situation, and the practice of positive ore negative stress coping styles were investigated.
Female alcohol dependent patients show a significant higher age of onset for alcohol dependence (p=0.02) and have a significant lower consumption of alcohol in relation to male alcohol dependent patients (p=0.004).
Moreover, female alcohol dependent patients are significant more frequent involved in education of children (p=0.04), and are living significant less alone (p=0.023).
The cortisol levels in plasma and CSF between female and male alcohol dependent patients does not differ. However, female alcoholics show a significant higher score of negative stress-coping styles than male alcoholics (p= 0.023).
There are significant psychosocial differences between female and male alcohol dependent patients. These gender specific differences relating to social stressors and handling with stress may be clinical relevant for treatment and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an important treatment in conjunction with psychopharmacotherapy in schizophrenia. However, there is only very little research on the effects of such interventions on brain function.
Recent studies have suggested that jumping to conclusions and a specific attributional bias is a predominant cognitive style in patients which might lead to the development of delusions. In this multi-centre fMRI trial, we investigated the effect of nine months of CBT on neural correlates of “jumping to conclusions” and the “attributional style” in patients with psychosis. Eighty patients and 80 control subjects were recruited in six centres and measured with 3-Tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) before and after CBT.
It could be shown that CBT ameliorates differences in brain activations between patients and controls after nine months.
These results support the feasibility of fMRI multicenter trials and sheds further light into the mechanisms relating psychotherapy to brain function in Schizophrenia.
There is evidence that patients with persecutory delusions tend to attribute excessively hypothetical positive events to internal causes and hypothetical negative events to external causes, arrive at hasty conclusions and fail in gathering and assessing adequate feedback, particularly when emotionally salient material is involved. Research on the neural correlates of the corresponding neural correlates and even more so on the potential effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the associated cerebral networks is almost unavailable.
The first and preliminary results of a multicentre fMRI study will be presented.
In this study eighty schizophrenia patients from the POSITIVE clinical trial and eighty healthy subjects were recruited at six German university hospitals (Bonn, Duisburg-Essen, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Cologne, Tubingen). After nine months of therapy (either with CBT or Supportive Therapy) patients and controls were re-examined enabling the study correlates of cerebral reorganization processes.
We found reliable differences in brain activation relating to phenomena of decision making under uncertainty, and biased attribution (self- vs. external reference of emotional events).
The comparison of both groups revealed significant decreased activation in key areas for decision making, self-reflection, self-relevance and agency attribution of patients with schizophrenia.
The preliminary data analysis of the still blinded treatment arms shows significantly increased activations in these areas after nine months of CBT. This suggest neuroplasitic changes according to relearning strategies in psychotic patients with schizophrenia and will hopefully give rise to a more widespread application of CBT in treatment of schizophrenia.
La couverture médiatique d’un fait suicidaire influence le taux de suicide par le biais d’un effet d’incitation, aussi nommé « effet Werther » (EW) ou d’un potentiel rôle préventif via « l’effet Papageno » (EP) . L’objectif du programme national français Papageno est d’améliorer les propriétés qualitatives du contenu médiatique dont dépendent principalement l’EW et l’EP, via l’application des recommandations de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) pour un traitement journalistique plus responsable du suicide. L’évaluation de l’efficacité du programme est donc un enjeu de prévention qui nécessite un outil d’analyse fidèle à ces recommandations.
Élaborer et valider une grille d’analyse qualitative permettant, pour chaque article de presse traitant du suicide, de mesurer le degré de compliance aux recommandations de l’OMS et de quantifier le risque d’EW et le potentiel EP.
La grille d’évaluation PReSS (Print media Reporting on Suicide Scale) combine 10 items descriptifs et 19 items qualitatifs issus de l’opérationnalisation des 11 recommandations de l’OMS. La validation de la fiabilité interjuges a été obtenue par séries de double cotation-correction de 25 articles traitant du suicide. Les critères de satisfaction des items ont été affinés après chaque série jusqu’à obtention d’un coefficient de kappa ≥ 0.7 pour chacun. À titre d’illustration, le traitement médiatique du supposé suicide du pilote d’avion A. Lubitz en mars 2015 a été analysé grâce à la PReSS.
Trois séries de cotation-correction ont été nécessaires pour valider la grille. L’analyse de la couverture du suicide présumé d’A. Lubitz montre un compliance faible aux recommandations, un score Papageno bas et un score Werther élevé.
La grille d’évaluation PReSS est un outil fiable et utile pour mesurer la compliance aux recommandations de l’OMS concernant la couverture médiatique du suicide.
Treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) is one of the most disabling of psychiatric disorders, affecting about 1/3 of patients. First-line treatments include both atypical and typical antipsychotics. The original atypical, clozapine, is a final option, and although it has been shown to be the only effective treatment for TRS, many patients do not respond well to clozapine. Clozapine use is related to adverse events, most notably agranulocytosis, a potentially fatal blood disorder which affects about 1% of those prescribed clozapine and requires regular blood monitoring. This as a barrier to prescription and there is a long delay in access for TRS patients, of five or more years, from first antipsychotic prescription. Better tools to predict treatment resistance and to identify risk of adverse events would allow faster and safer access to clozapine for patients who are likely to benefit from it. The CRESTAR project (www.crestar-project.eu) is a European Framework 7 collaborative project that aims to develop tools to predict i) treatment response, particularly patients who are less likely to respond to usual antipsychotics, indicating treatment with clozapine as early as possible, ii) patients who are at high or low risk of adverse events and side effects, iii) extreme TRS patients so that they can be stratified in clinical trials for novel treatments. CRESTAR has addressed these questions by examining genome-wide association data, genome sequence, epigenetic biomarkers and epidemiological data in European patient cohorts characterized for treatment response, and adverse drug reaction using data from clozapine therapeutic drug monitoring and linked National population medical and pharmacy databases, to identify predictive factors. In parallel CRESTAR will perform health economic research on potential benefits, and ethics and patient-centred research with stakeholders.
Lack of adherence to recommended treatment poses major clinical and economic challenges for psychiatry, and requires further study.
Objectives and aims:
We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between the level of understanding of psychiatric emergency department (ED) discharge recommendations and presence of a companion with short term treatment adherence.
Sixty subjects were evaluated twice: upon ED discharge and a month later. Instruments included a structured questionnaire based on the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment, MMSE, and corroboration of data with the computerized hospital medical file.
There was a significant association between patient understanding and adherence with medication instructions (p< .01) and adherence to psychiatric follow-up (p< .05). There was also an association between the presence of a companion and adherence to medication instructions (x2(1)=7.0, p< .01).
Ensuring patients' understanding of treatment recommendations and encouraging the company of patients are achievable, practical strategies that may improve adherence and thereby promote better outcomes.
L’accès aux soins des personnes à risque constitue un pilier essentiel de la prévention du suicide. Cependant, les idées reçues véhiculées autour des conduites suicidaires y opposent un obstacle significatif. Afin de cibler au mieux les campagnes d’information qui dissiperaient ces mythes, et pour en évaluer l’efficacité, les connaissances sur le suicide devraient pouvoir être quantifiées de façon fiable. À ce jour, seules quelques études anglo-saxonnes dédiées ont été validées. La limite décisive à leur interprétation tient cependant à ce qu’elles ne permettent pas d’approche normative. En effet, l’exactitude de leurs propositions n’est validée par aucun étalon officiel, alors même que certaines relèvent plus de l’expérience clinique que de connaissances issues de la littérature. Notre objectif consiste à palier cette limite en proposant une échelle dont la cotation est adaptée à l’évaluation d’un savoir normé. Le Questionnaire d’Évaluation des Connaissances sur le Suicide (QECS) est un auto-questionnaire qui explore, en 35 items, les principales connaissances relatives à l’épidémiologie et aux mythes communs concernant le suicide. Les réponses y sont recueillies par échelle visuelle analogique. La cotation finale se fait en confrontant ces réponses à celles d’un panel de référence constitué de spécialistes en suicidologie (n = 47). Nous présentons ici les résultats de ce panel, ainsi qu’une illustration des potentialités d’interprétation du QECS, via l’évaluation des connaissances d’un échantillon test d’étudiants en journalisme (n = 111). Les réponses du panel de référence étaient significativement différentes de « ni accord, ni désaccord » pour 27 des 29 items dédiés aux mythes. Pour 25 de ces items, une différence significative était retrouvée entre l’échantillon test et le panel de référence. Ainsi attestée, l’existence d’un avis expertal spécifique a servi d’étalon pour 2 modes de cotation des réponses de l’échantillon test : un score de véracité et un score de concordance aux experts.
Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are a frequently and effectively used treatment in schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Other than First-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), which mainly exert their pharmacologic effect in subcortical dopaminergic systems, SGAs additionally affect partly serotonergically innervated structures within prefrontal areas, such as the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC). However, only few controlled, randomized studies have so far investigated direct and indirect effects of SGAs on the ACC.
The present study investigated differential effects of one SGA (quetiapine) and one FGA (flupentixol) on the human action monitoring system.
ACC function in 18 quetiapine-medicated patients and 13 flupentixol-treated patients suffering from schizophrenia was assessed by means of the error-related negativity (ERN), a neurophysiological marker of ACC function, in a pre-post design. Results Between-group comparisons revealed different effects of quetiapine and flupentixol on ACC function despite similar improvement in psychopathology, cognitive performance and quality of life. Whereas SGA treatment was associated with an increase in amplitudes over time, there were prolonged ERN peak latencies in patients treated with the FGA. Moreover, treatment effects depended on baseline PFC function in both groups.
We conclude that both flupentixol and quetiapine improve prefrontal function especially in patients with weak initial ACC function which might be due to their shared affinity for 5HT-receptors in frontal brain regions. However, since this affinity is more pronounced for SGAs, patients treated with quetiapine seemed to profit more evidently concerning PFC function compared to patients of the flupentixol group, who exhibited a compensatory prolongation of processes.