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ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our implementation model translates two evidence-based nutritional and behavioral interventions to lower blood pressure, into a community-based intervention program for seniors receiving congregate meals. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Rockefeller University, Clinical Directors Network, and Carter Burden Network received an Administration for Community Living Nutrition Innovation grant to test whether implementation of DASH-concordant meals and health education programs together lower blood pressure among seniors aging in place. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: n=200, >60 yr, >4 meals/week at CBN; engagement of seniors/stakeholders in planning and conduct; Advisory Committee to facilitate dissemination; menus aligned with Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and NYC Department for the Aging nutritional guidelines; interactive sessions for education in nutrition, BP management, medication adherence. Training in use of automated daily home BP monitors (Omron 20). Validated surveys at M0, M1, M3, M6. Taste preference and cost assessed through Meal Satisfaction (Likert scale) and Plate Waste measures. Primary Outcome: Change in Systolic BP (SBP) at Month 1; change in %BP controlled. Secondary: validated cognitive, behavioral, nutritional measures (SF-12, PQH-2), economics; staff/client satisfaction, trends and significant associations. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: n=94, x2 age =73 +/- 8 years, 65% female, 50% White, 32% Black/African American, 4% Asian, 1% American Indian, Alaskan Native, 13% Other, 32% Latino/a, 43% with income <$20,000. Mean SBP at Baseline was 137.87 +18.8 mmHg (range 98-191). Menus were adapted to provide 20% daily DASH requirements at breakfast, 50% at lunch. Participants attended classes in nutrition and medication management and were provided with and trained to use an automated home BP monitor. Meal satisfaction scores dipped briefly then met or exceed pre-DASH levels. Home BP data was downloaded every 2-4 weeks with social/behavioral support. The COVID-19 closures interfered with BP outcome data collection and meal service ceased. Primary outcome: x2 change in SBP at Month 1 = -4.41 mmHg + 18 (n=61) (p=0.713). Significant associations will be reported. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our community-academic research partnership implemented the DASH diet in congregate-meal settings to address uncontrolled hypertension in seniors. COVID-19 interrupted the study, but encouraging trends were observed that may inform refinement to this community-based health intervention for seniors.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Innovations with positive health impact are a high priority for NCATS and CTSAs. Program design that uses the Causal Pathway approach incorporates performance indicators that assess impact. We applied Causal Pathway thinking to an ongoing national program to enhance the evaluation of program impact. We report Lessons Learned. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a day-long onsite workshop to introduce the model to the project team, build capacity, and map the existing program elements to Logic Models representing program Specific Aims. A local Causal Pathway (CP) champion was identified. Alignment of the Logic Models with the CP approach (input→activities→ outputs→effects/impact) developed iteratively through biweekly, then monthly conferral among stakeholders. Key tasks included distinguishing among activities, outputs, and effects (impacts), and identification of performance indicators for each stage of the Causal Pathway. Visualization tools and an additional late stage half-day workshop were used to foster consensus. Implementation of the CP model tested the feasibility of collecting specific indicators and prompted model revisions. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Program leadership and team members (n = 30) participated in the kick-off workshop. Four Specific Aims were mapped to Logic Models. Multiple Causal Pathway (CP) diagrams, one for each project in the program, were developed and mapped to Aims. Alignment of CP threads to Aims and identification of performance indicators required iteration. CP threads converged onto common final Impacts, sometimes crossing to another Aim. Performance indicators for operations were readily accessible to team members, and less so for impacts. Assumptions about program effects were subjected to specific indicators. Over time, Leadership noticed more expression of CP thinking in daily activities. New projects developed during this period incorporated the CP approach. Teams were able to streamline and simplify Logic/CP models. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Through capacity-building and mentored exercises, an innovation team was able to infuse CP thinking into the evaluation of their ongoing program. The CP approach to design and evaluation maps progress and indicators across the life of a program from initial activities to its ultimate impact.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: There is universal recognition of the importance of team science and team leadership. We have developed a semi-quantitative translational science specific team leadership competency assessment tool and have begun implementation studies to assess the impact of personalized feedback on the team science leadership skills of KL2 Clinical Scholars. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To create the instrument, we employed a modified Delphi approach by conducting a thorough literature review on Leadership to concretize the relevant constructs, then used these extracted constructs as a springboard for the Rockefeller Team Science Educators (TSE’s) to discuss and refine the leadership domain areas, collectively create domain-specific survey items. Further discussion helped refined the number, grouping, and wording. Scholars also contributed feedback in item development. We piloted the Leadership Survey by having all of the Rockefeller TSEs rate Clinical Scholars, and having each Scholar rate themselves. Each item was answered using a six-point Likert scale where a low score indicated poor expression and a high score represented excellent expression of the specific leadership attribute. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Incorporation into a REDCap data base made consenting and rating process by TSE’s and the Scholars straightforward. The a priori domains (Foundational Leadership Competencies, Professionalism, Team Building and Team Sustainability, Appropriate Resource Use and Study Execution, and Regulatory Accountability) had high internal validity and good internal factor structure. The congruence between TSE and Scholar self-ratings were uniformly high, and discordance was often a function of “confidence” and “modesty” on the part of the scholar, rather than deficiency. Supporting comments were informative about performance barriers and mechanisms for improvement. Return of results allowed for the exploration of training gaps. Scholars were surveyed to gauge their reaction to the formal feedback. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This quantification of team science leadership constructs has allowed for A)- the articulation of constructs essential for successful Translational Scientists to acquire during their training, B)- identification of gaps in that training and skill set, and C)- mechanisms for bolstering any identified gaps in these essential leadership constructs. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: None
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a psychotherapeutic intervention that has been shown effective in several clinical conditions. Nevertheless, research is still needed on its effectiveness on cognition.
To analyze possible effects on cognition of the addition of MBCT intervention versus a brief structured group psycho-education to the standard treatment of subsyndromal bipolar depression. Our hypothesis was that MBCT could improve some aspects of cognitive function to a higher degree than psycho-education and treatment as usual (TAU).
A randomized, multicenter, prospective, versus active comparator, evaluator-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Forty patients with BD and subclinical or mild depressive symptoms were randomly allocated to:
– MBCT added to psychopharmacological treatment (n = 16);
– a brief structured group psycho-educational intervention added to psychopharmacological treatment (n = 17);
– standard clinical management, including psychopharmacological treatment (n = 7).
Assessments were conducted at screening, baseline, post-intervention (8 weeks) and 4-month follow-up.
Cognition results point to significant improvement in Stroop Color test as well as processing speed in TMT A test (P < 0.05) in the two psychological intervention groups versus TAU.
These preliminary findings suggest that the addition of MBCT or psycho-education to usual treatment could improve some cognitive dimensions in subsyndromal bipolar depressive patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To create the instrument, we employed a modified Delphi approach by conducting a thorough literature review on Leadership to help concretize the relevant constructs, and then usied these extracted constructs as a springboard for the Rockefeller Team Science Educators (TSE’s) to discuss and refine the leadership domain areas, collectively creating domain-specific survey items, and then further discussed and refining the number, grouping, and wording of the items. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We piloted the Leadership Survey by having all of the Rockefeller TSEs rate Clinical Scholars. Each item was answered using a six-point Likert scale where a low score indicated poor expression of the specific leadership attribute and a high score represented excellent expression of the specific leadership attribute. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Means, medians, standard deviations, and ranges of each item were calculated and tabulated. A complete (Pearson) correlation matrix was computed so that the raw inter-item relationships can be observed. For each a priori Domain an equal weighted summary scale was created and tabulated for review. The internal consistency of each a priori scale was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s Alpha (α). Items with low Item to Construct coefficients were candidates for elimination or modification, and overall scales with low’s will undergo further discussion. To challenge our assumptions of the construction and integrity of each domain, we employed exploratory Principal Components Analysis (PCA), followed by orthogonally rotated Factor Analysis (FA). We also forced the PCA / FA analysis to extract the a priori dimensions that allowed us to compare if the empirical and a priori structures match. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We are partnering with the CTSA programs at Penn and Yale to assess issues of generalizability and scalability. We are working with Vanderbilt to install survey onto REDCap for ease of dissemination. Will continue to assess psychometric properties and refine as we receive more input.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program began in 1976 and transitioned into a 3-year Master’s degree program in 2006 when Rockefeller joined the National Institute of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award program. The program consists of ∼15 trainees supported by the Clinical and Translational Science Award KL2 award and University funds. It is designed to provide an optimal environment for junior translational investigators to develop team science and leadership skills by designing and performing a human subjects protocol under the supervision of a distinguished senior investigator mentor and a team of content expert educators. This is complemented by a tutorial focused on important translational skills.
Since 2006, 40 Clinical Scholars have graduated from the programs and gone on to careers in academia (72%), government service (5%), industry (15%), and private medical practice (3%); 2 (5%) remain in training programs; 39/40 remain in translational research careers with 23 National Institute of Health awards totaling $23 million, foundation and philanthropic support of $20.3 million, and foreign government and foundation support of $6 million. They have made wide ranging scientific discoveries and have endeavored to translate those discoveries into improved human health.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program provides one model for translational science training.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of an evidence-based assessment (EBA) model to establish a multimodal set of tools for identifying students at risk for perceived post-injury academic problems. Methods: Participants included 142 students diagnosed with concussion (age: M=14.95; SD=1.80; 59% male), evaluated within 4 weeks of injury (median=16 days). Demographics, pre-injury history, self- and parent-report measures assessing symptom severity and executive functions, and cognitive test performance were examined as predictors of self-reported post-injury academic problems. Results: Latent class analysis categorized participants into “high” (44%) and “low” (56%) levels of self-reported academic problems. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed significant discriminative validity for self- and parent-reported symptom severity and executive dysfunction and self-reported exertional response for identifying students reporting low versus high academic problems. Parent-reported symptom ratings [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=.79] and executive dysfunction (AUC=.74), and self-reported ratings of executive dysfunction (AUC=.84), symptoms (AUC=.80), and exertional response (AUC=.70) each classified students significantly better than chance (ps<.001). Hierarchical logistic regression indicated that, of the above, self-reported symptoms and executive dysfunction accounted for the most variance in the prediction of self-reported academic problems. Conclusions: Post-concussion symptom severity and executive dysfunction significantly predict perceived post-injury academic problems. EBA modeling identified the strongest set of predictors of academic challenges, offering an important perspective in the management of concussion by applying traditional strengths of neuropsychological assessment to clinical decision making. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1038–1049)
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
The design and scientific applications of a 96-channel filter spectrograph of 1 MHz resolution are presented. The spectrograph is currently under construction and will be installed on the Parkes telescope in 1987-1988. Its main scientific objective is dynamic spectral studies of decimetre- and metre-wavelength bursts from flare stars. However, it will also be used for performing large-scale pulsar surveys, and dynamic spectral observations of interplanetary scintillation of compact sources, interstellar scintillation of compact extragalactic sources, and interesting radio sources in general.
We show that plasma emission generated in the coronae of flare stars should be detectable at metre- and decimetre-wavelengths. We plan to search for fundamental and second-harmonic plasma radiation by observing in two harmonically related bands, 200 to 250 MHz and 400 to 500 MHz. With noise-adding to stabilize receiver gain, the sensitivity (3σ) of each channel of the spectrograph is ∼ 1.5 Jy for a 1-s integration. Previous studies have reported peak flux densities of up to ∼ 35 Jy and ∼ 12 Jy at 240 MHz and 410 MHz respectively for radio bursts from flare stars.
In its normal synthesis mode of operation, the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) tracks a region of sky for a period of 12 hours with 64 real-time fan beams having high sensitivity at 843 MHz (Mills 1981). It thus provides an excellent opportunity to monitor the sky at the same time for transient radio events. During a 12 hour synthesis observation the fan beams rotate 180° on the field. Thus any sources producing occasional radio transients can be located by analysing the positions of the beams on which the events are recorded. Futhermore, by rejecting events which occur simultaneously on non-adjacent beams, local terrestrial sources of impulsive interference may be eliminated. This technique for recognizing extra-terrestrial sources was of considerable value in the first Molonglo pulsar search when only two beams were used.
We describe bright microwave events that were first detected with the Parkes 64-m telescope at 8.4 or 22 GHz from six active-chromosphere stars. In some flares spectral data were obtained over a large frequency range from simultaneous measurements with the Parkes reflector (8.4 or 22 GHz), the Tidbinbilla interferometer (8.4 and 2.29 GHz), the Fleurs synthesis telescope (1.42 GHz) and the Molonglo Observatory synthesis telescope (0.843 GHz). Data on circular polarization were obtained from the Parkes observations at 8.4 GHz.
The stars were in a wide variety of evolutionary states, ranging from a single pre-main-sequence star (HD 36705), two RS CVn binaries (HD 127535, HD 128171), an Algol (HD 132742) and two apparently single K giants (HD 32918 and HD 196818). Their high brightness temperatures, positive spectral indices and low polarization are consistent with optically thick gyrosynchrotron emission from mildly relativistic electrons with average energies 0.5 to 3 MeV gyrating in inhomogeneous magnetic fields of 5 to 100 G.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
The single G8V active chromosphere star HD36705 (AB Dor) was observed at 8.4 GHz with the Parkes 64 m telescope during three observing sessions involving a total of 21 days in the interval 1985 December to 1986 February. Subsequent photometric observations were made of the star with the 0.25 m and 0.45 m telescopes of the Monash Observatory in 1986 March-April. Two strong radio flares, each lasting three days, were detected; they yielded peak radio powers of P8.4≈4×109 W Hz-1, comparable with the microwave power emitted by the RS CVn binaries. Significant circular polarization of 13% left-hand was measured on only one of the six active days. The 8.4 GHz flux density showed smooth variation over an interval of several hours, consistent with the flare source being partly occulted by the stellar disk as the star rotated. When all the radio data was phase-binned using the known rotation period of 0.514 day we found two radio maxima corresponding to radio sources at stellar longitudes ~180° apart. The subsequent photometric data showed intensity variations that were consistent with the starspots at the same approximate longitudes. We thus interpret our radio curve as showing the presence of comparatively small (<0.5 D*) radio sources in the corona above the star spots. The upper limit to source diameter gives a peak brightness temperature ≥2×l010 K, which can be achieved by gyro-synchrotron emission only if the source is optically thick and the electrons, with average energy ~ 2 MeV, have a hard energy spectrum. The observed radiation can be due only to very high harmonics of the gyro-frequency, leading to an estimate for the magnetic field strength of ~30G.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Created in London c. 1340, the Auchinleck manuscript (Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland Advocates MS 19.2.1) is of crucial importance as the first book designed to convey in the English language an ambitious range of secular romance and chronicle. Evidently made in London by professional scribes for a secular patron, this tantalizing volume embodies a massive amount of material evidence as to London commercial book production and the demand for vernacular texts in the early fourteenth century. But its origins are mysterious: who were its makers? its users? how was it made? what end did it serve? The essays in this collection define the parameters of present-day Auchinleck studies. They scrutinize the manuscript's rich and varied contents; reopen theories and controversies regarding the book's making; trace the operations and interworkings of the scribes, compiler, and illuminators; tease out matters of patron and audience; interpret the contested signs of linguisticand national identity; and assess Auchinleck's implied literary values beside those of Chaucer. Geography, politics, international relations and multilingualism become pressing subjects, too, alongside critical analyses of literary substance.
Susanna Fein is Professor of English at Kent State University (Kent, Ohio) and editor of The Chaucer Review.
Contributors: Venetia Bridges, Patrick Butler, Siobhain Bly Calkin, A. S. G. Edwards, Ralph Hanna, Ann Higgins, Cathy Hume, Marisa Libbon, Derek Pearsall, Helen Phillips, Emily Runde, Timothy A. Shonk, M-l F. Vaughan.